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49. The discovery of radium was the first to start the new era of radioactive elements.

50. Both instruments and human explorers are sure • to find many surprises in the solar system.

tl. Переведите предложения, содержащие местоимение Н в функции формаль> иого дополнения.

Заметьте, что it в данной конструкции иа русский язык не переводится. Образец:

The hydraulic press makes it possible to exert ari. enormous force...

Гидравлический пресс дает возможность («делает возможным») создавать огромную силу...

1. А television telephone will make it possible to see a person at the other end of the line.

2. As the angle of attack is increased the flow of air finds it increasingly difficult to maintain contact with the surface of the wing and it separates from the surface before reaching the trailing edge.

3. The development of cells which can convert solar energy into electrical power with an efficiency of 10 per cent may make it possible to design instrumented satellites with unlimited operating lives.

4. The similarity from the chemical point of view of Urani-um-235 and -238 makes it difficult to separate them by means normally used in chemical laboratories.

5. Experiments on interference and diffraction of light make it necessary to assume that the different colours in the spectrum must be represented by waves which have different values of wavelengths.

12. Переведите предложения, содержащие союзные слова that, what, how, where. Заметьте, что при переводе таких предложений перед союзным словом в некоторых случаях следует добавить местоимение «то» в соответствующем падеже: «то, что»; «того, как» н т. д. Если союзному слову предшествует предлог (например. In that или as lo how), то падеж местоиме- иня «то» определяется предлогом («в том, что», «в отношении того, как»).

1. The internal combustion engine differs from the steam engine in that the fuel is burned directly in the cylinder.

2. Bernoullis theory, 1938, furnished an explanation of what was then known of the behaviour of gases.

3. The type of material selected for wire insulation deperids upon where the wire is going to be used.

4. We now turn to a description of some examples of how radioisotopes have come into active use.

5. There exist many theories as to how gravitational force may be overcome.

• be sure to - обязательно

2» 35



13. Переведите предложения, содержащие союз whether. Обратите винмние на то, что перевод предложения следует начинать со сказуемого (или первого его компонента), а затем поставить час.тнцу «ли».

Образец:

Whether the spaceship will be able to leave the Earth depends upon the speed of the ship.

Сможет ли космический корабль оторваться от Земли, зависит от скорости корабля.

1. It must be first of all determined whether the propellant is corrosive, stable, economical or costly.

2. Since the discovery of the solar cycle, attempts have been made to see whether the intensity of the Suns visible light varies throughout the cycle.

3. Whether it will be economical to use missiles for transportation of cargo and people depends upon the use of nuclear propulsion.

4. We do not know whether Venlis is completely or partially covered with water.

5. It was interesting to find out whether the oxygen and nitrogen in the upper layers of the atmosphere are in the form of molecules or atoms.

6. The classification of amplifiers may be based upon whether or not vacuum-tube elements are employed in the fundamental operation.

7. The question whether or not a certain type of amplifier can meet special technical requirements will be of great importance.

14. Переведите предложения, содержащие служебное слово for.

Заметьте, что для перевода for важно выяснить, является ли оно союзом или предлогом. Помните, что если for стоит перед подлежащим, то это союз (cj -«так как»). Если for стоит перед обстоятельством - это предлог (ргр -«для», «в течение»).

1. For most of the scientific researches relatively small satellites can be used.

2. For a long time the internal combustion engine was the only type of engine used for aircraft.

3. The Sun provides us with light during the day, it also gives us light at night, for the light of the Moon is only reflected sunlight.

4. The kite flies, for it exposes its flat surface at an angle against the wind.

5. No one can do without friction, for without it we could not even wajk.

6. Cybernetics has given experts in space medicine methods for the exact analysis of all physiological processes taking place Ш the human body,



7. In interplanetary flights a reliable communications system with Earth will be an absolute necessity for successful work.

15. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово both.

Для перевода both необходимо определить, является ли оио местоимением («оба») или первым компонентом парного союза both .„ and («как ... так и...»). Для этого необходимо выяснить, не следует ли за группой слов, начинающейся словом both, другая группа-с союзом and.

1. Solids have both definite volume and definite shape.

2. Both types of propellants are used in modern rocket engines: liquid propellants and solid propellants.

3. The wide range of subjects covered in this book include investigations both practical and theoretical.

4. Liquids and gases are both fluids.

5. With the increase in thrust levels and the use of the high-energy propellants, both size and weight increase greatly.

Лексические упражнения

16. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что выбор перевода переходного глагола зависит от значения существительного- прямого дополнения (§ 113).

Помните о последовательности действий при переводе: сначала следует перевести существительное-дополнение, а затем глагол-сказуемое.

1. It was very difficult in the early days of, atom-smashing to deliver a hit on the nucleus.

2. Storage batteries do not deliver their maximum output at extremely low temperature.

3. A simple radiotelescope consists of a directional antenna which collects incoming radio waves and delivers the collected energy to a receiver.

4. Radioisotopes constitute a potential danger and we must handle them carefiilly.

5. Using this device, the Geiger counter, is able to handle signals at a rapid rate.

6. It is much more difficult to handle radiation received from reactors in indirect ways.

17. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа многозначность выделенных глаголов. После перевода предложений назовите еще раз значения глаголов.

gain (1, 4)

1. An atom may gain one or more electrons.

2. Using this type of engine one can gain much In terms of effectiveness.

3. A rocket witha constant thrust cantinually gains in speed.

4. This book is for anyone who wants to gain, with the least difficulty, a complete understanding of the fundamentals of radio and electronics.



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