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Roemer concluded that the delay of 22 minutes was due to the time taken for light to travel the distance across the orbit of the Earth. The diameter of the Earths orbit was known to be approximately 190 million miles. When Roemer divided this distance


Eartri(2)

Jupiter /С.

Earth (1


Moon(l)

by the time (22 minutes or 22X60 seconds) he computed the speed of light to be about 150,000 miles per second.

As you know, the approximate value accepted today is 186,000 miles per second (or 3X10*" centimeters per second). Thus, although Roemers value was not quite correct, yet his calculations made in the 17-th century with a limited equipment, were a remarkable achievement.

* hide - скрывать, прятать 2 eclipse - затмение

in advance - вперед, заранее

* delay - задержка

* be due to - обусловливаться

2. GUIDANCE*

(Для перевода без словаря)

The first subject to be considered is that of guidance. The term "guidance" refers to the information required by a space vehicle in order to make it follow a given path or perform a particular task. "Guidance" is thus distinguished from "control" which is defined as the actual, mechanical procedure used to steer the vehicle along that path. Guidance and control together constitute navigation, in its broadest sense.

Because the problems which are faced in the different phases of guidance are generally different, it is necessary to distinguish three such phases, namely: initial guidancemidcourse guidance * and terminal.



Initial guidance is applied during the po\vered phase of the space flight. Then the motor is cut of[ and the rocket vehicle is generally detached * from the space vehicle. The latter then coasts along its orbit or trajectory in space, following a ballistic course with gravitational attraction for example of the Earth, the Moon or the Sun, as the only force acting on the spacecraft.

The purpose of midcourse guidance is to make the needed corrections at some point in the trajectory to compensate for the inevitable errors and so bring the vehicle closer to its target.

Terminal guidance is used in the final stage of 4he mission *, which may be a return to Earth, the landing of instruments or a manned spacecraft on the Moon, etc.

It should be noted that not all of these guidance phases are necessarily applicable to a particular mission. However, if we want two manned vehicles to meet in space, a combination of several kinds of guidance is necessary for the operation to be adequately completed.

* guidance - наведение

* steer - управлять

initial guidance - наведение на начальном участке траектории

* midcourse guidance - наведение иа среднем участке траектории

* detach - отделять

coast - лететь в свободном полете inevitable - неизбежны»!

* mission - программа полета

3. LIFE ON THE OTHER PLANETS

(Для перевода со словарем)

The problem of the origin of the Earth proved to be one of the most difficult problems of astronomy. Many theories have been put forward to explain the origin of the solar system. But the problem of life on other planets is still more difficult.

It has been estimated that there are about 100 million universes in that part of space that can be observed through the one-hundred-inch telescope.

But the existence of other planetary systems, though it is a necessary condition for life to exist elsewhere in the universe, is not a sufficient condition. In any planetary system everything seems to be weighed against the possibility of the existence of life; special conditions are needed in order that life may be possible.

If the planet is very near its Sun, it will be too hot for life to exist; if it is very far away, it will be too cold. И it is very much smaller than the Earth, it will have been unable to retain any atmosphere. If it is much larger, it will have retained too much



atmosphere; for when the gravitational attraction is so great that hydrogen cannot escape from the atmosphere the formation qf the poisonous gases, whicli we found in the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn - appears to be almost inevitable. There seems to be little chance that life can exist on any world if that world differs greatly from the Earth in size and weight; it must be neither very much smaller than the Earth nor very much larger. .

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ

. 1. Как можно определить в предложении конструкцию «инфинитив как часть сказуемого»? Назовите глаголы - первые компоненты конструкции. Укажите, какие из глаголов э1оп группы приобретают в данной конструкции другое значение. Какие слова могут стоять между частями конструкции. Укажите возможные способы перевода конструкции (§ 8-14).

2. После каких глаголов может следовать конструкция «инфинитив как часть сложного дополнения»? Укажите, какое значение приобретают глаголы cause и make, если за ними следует указанная инфинитивная конструкция. Укажите способы перевода конструкции (§ 15, 16).

3. Укажите способы перевода конструкции «for+существи-тельное + инфииитив». Какой союз может предшествовать данной конструкции (§ 18)?

4. Как определить функцию инфинитива, стояш,его на первом месте в предложении? Укажите способ перевода инфинитива в функции подлежащего и инфинитива в функция обстоятельства (§ 2-5).

5. Укажите место инфинитива в функции определения. Назовите способ его перевода (§ 6, 7).

6. Какие слова могут стоять между частицей to и самим инфинитивом (§ 19)?

7. Укажите последовательность перевода слов в предложении, начинающемся с союза whether (упр. 13).

8. Какие значения может иметь служебное слово for (упр. 14)?

9. Как переводится местоимениеboth, союз both... and (упр. 15)?

0. Чем определяется выбор перевода многозначного глагола (§ 113)?

И. Какое значение придают словам префиксы dis-, un-, in-(ir-, il-, im-) (упр. 27)?

12. Укажите модель перевода прилагательного с суффиксом -able (упр. 26).



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