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УРОК ВТОРОЙ

Текст: The Fundamental Problems of Television. Грамматические осиовы перевода

Перевод причастных конструкций: определительные причастные обороты (§ 21, 24), обстоятельственные причастные -обороты с союзами (§ 22), обособленный причастный оборот, обособленный причастный оборот с предлогом with (§ 23), конструкция «причастие + инфинитив» типа expected to reach (§ 25).

Перевод служебных слов: folfowing, assuming, given, depending (упр. 13).

Различные значения служебного слова as (упр. 14). Лексические основы перевода

Зависимость перевода глагола-сказуемого от лексического значения подлежащего (§ 114).

Перевод наречий, относящихся к глаголу н прилагательному (§ 118, 119).

Перевод слов: resulting, related, assosiated, lilie. Involve, fundamentals, essentials, variables, provide, succession, locate.

Перевод словосочетаний; by now, by then, словосочетаний «глагол to be 4- существительное с предлогом», словосочетаний с глаголом to take н словосочетаний со словами view и point.

Перевод союзов: provided, provided that, providing.

Перевод слов с префиксами sub-, super-, ultra- (упр. 33).

Перевод терминов типа «причастие 1-1-существительное», «причастие 11-Ьсуществител{.ное» (упр. 34).

ТЕКСТ

THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS OF TELEVISION

Unlike * other inventions such as the cinema or the sound radio, television was not presented to the public in an Infant" state. Having been kept in the laboratory for a long time it appeared as a nearly grown-up з. By now* television has already been in practfcal use for some time. Yet, we have only begun to develop the resources of television likely tobecomenot only a means of entertainment and education but one of the most po--werful research instruments and aids to production efficiency and processing control *.

• processing control - контроль за производственными процессами



The word "television" by common acceptance has come* to mean the essentially instantaneous transmission, either by wire or radio, of moving pictures or images.»

Essentially three steps are involved* in television, namely: 1) the analysis of the light image into electrical signals; 2) the transmission of the electrical signals to the points •* of reception; and 3) the synthesis of a visible" reproduction of the original image from the electrical signal.

The ordinary concept of a picture or image is that of a surface over which there is more or less continuous distribution of varying light and dark, the distribution changing smoothly *2 with time to conform " with motion in the picture. Here the brightness " is a function of the three independent variables x, у and t, where x and у are the horizontal and vertical position of any point on the picture and t is the time. Obviously, such a distribution cannot be transmitted over a single electrical communication channel" where ihe current or voltage transmitted is the function of time only.

In order to overcome this fundamental difficulty it is necessary to take advantage" of certain physiological limitations of sight" to reduce the amount of information being transmitted. These limitations are the finite" resolving power * of the eye and the persistence of vision **. If a picture is subdivided into a large number of small elements, with each element being uniformly shadedo, the picture will still appear continuous, provided 21 the elements are so small that they are not resolved by the eye. Thus a picture composed 22 of a finite number of discrete 23 elements is entirely satisfactory 2* for viewing 2».

The illusion of continuous motion can be obtained as is done in the case of the cinema, if we form a series of static pictures in rapid succession2в, with one picture differing slightly from the preceding to correspond to the motion which has taken place in the scene 2» (opera, play or sporting .event) during,the interval between pictures. From this it will be evident that the information known to be necessary to reconstruct a completely satisfactory visual representation of a moving picture, can be conveyed 2» by transmission of the brightness values of a finite number of picture elements at finite rate. Therefore, the conditions found to be necessary for the transmission of moving pictures over an electrical communication channel are satisfied.

The picture to be transmitted is analysed зо ЬУ the process known as scanning ***.

• resolving power - разрешающая способность *• persistence of vision - инерция зрительного восприятия **♦ scanning - развертка



The scanning element at the transmitter end - the exploring element - moves in a continuous or discontinuous line covering the entire surface of the picture. In general the size of the exploring element is equal to a picture element or smaller than a picture element. It generates, either directly or indirectly, an electrical signal which corresponds to the brightness of the area of the image on which it is located . As the exploring element moves along the scanning pattern * over the surface of the picture the electrical signal varies forming a characteristic complex wave known as the video signal.

At the receiving end of the links there is another element - the reproducing e ement - which moves over the screen* in a scanning pattern which is geometrically similar to that at the transmitter. To obtain a picture at the receiver the scanning beam at the receiver must keep accurately in step with that at the transmitter: in other words, at any instant, both scanning beams must be moving over the same line of the image and must be at the same point in that time. Therefore, a reproduction of the picture being transmitted is formed on the screen of the receiver.

The scanning pattern at the transmitter, the exploring and reproducing elements and the communication channel connecting them are symbolically illustrated in the figure below.

Communication

channel

Exploring element

Reproducing element

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Грамматические упражнения

1, Найдите в предложениях простые причастия I н II. Укажите, какую функцию в предложении они выполняют (определения или обстоятельства), н те признаки, по которым вы это определили (§ 21, 22).

Обратите внимание на перевод тех английских причастий, которые не могут быть переданы соответствующей формой русских причастий.

1. Experiments made with radio waves have shown that the atmosphere conducting layer lies at heights above about 85 km.

scanning pattern - развертка



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