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3. As explained on page 681, in the following chapter we include the study of the ionosphere.

4. The location of the detectors is as indicated in Fig. 50.

5. The Sun is the best known and most carefully studied star, and its energy production as calculated from nuclear reactions can be compared with well-known astrophysical data.

6. The principle of action equals reaction as offered by Newton is known to be widely used in electrical calculations.,

7. The theoretical significance of the wave theory of matter as applied to electronics will be discussed later.

8. As a result of detailed studies of the orbits of a number of satellites as determined from radio and optical observations, it is now known that the temperature above 200 km varies over the solar cycle.

9. Discussing the properties of the upper atmosphere as derived from the use of ground-based equipment we have noted a number t)f important aspects which cannot be investigated without space vehicles.

10. The reader may be familiar* with vectors as met in physics.

11. The electromagnetic theory (Maxwell, 1862) describes light as consisting of electromagnetic waves propagating through space, as sound waves propagate through air.

12. The first evidence of the structure of electricity as consisting of smallest charges, the electrons, was derived from the laws of electrolysis.

13. In 1908 scientists (following the original suggestion of Balfour Stewart) attempted to develop a detailed theory of the quiet variations as arising from upper atmospheric current flow.

9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что причастие в функции левого определения в некоторых случаях лучше передать существи-тельным (§ 21, п. 3).

1. With increased knowledge of these fluctuations we may improve the accuracy of this test.

2. The measured changes of neutron intensity with magnetization of the iron proved that the neutron is influenced strongly by the magnetic fields of the iron atoms.

3. The reduction in propellant weight made possible by the use of nuclear rockets permits an Increased payload.

-4. The intensity recorded during the first few days after the solar protons had arrived showed the decreased intensity of galactic cosmic radiation.

* be familiar - знать, иметь понятие (о чем-л.)



10. Переведите предложения с причастием 1 в функции обстоятельства.

Учтите, что в указанных примерах английское причастие I в функции обстоятельства лучше переводить не деепричастием, как обычно, а предложением, типа «что указывает на ...» нли «и указывает на ...». Этот способ перевода используется в тех случаях, когда действие, выражаемое причастием, по своему содержанию несет не меньшую смысловую нагрузку, чем действие, выраженное сказуемым главного предложения.

1. Subsequent observations showed а high degree of variability. Indicating that the X-ray emission changes considerably throughout the sunspot cycle.

2. The greatest electric field that can be maintained in air under ordinary atmospheric conditions Is 3X10 volt per metre, corresponding to a surface density of 26 microcoulomb per square metre.

3. The nature of the solar particle radiations needs to be explored out to distances of many Earth radii, calling for» the use of satellites in eccentric orbits.

4. Ordinary hydrogen has a single proton in its nucleus but its heavy isotope has both a proton and a neutron, making its mass number 2 instead of 1.

5. While working to isolate Polonium, the Curies disc6vered a second radioactive element, calling it "radium."

6. Certain natural radioactive elements which differ greatly from one another in their radioactive properties were found to be chemically inseparable, suggesting that their external structures are identical though their nuclei differ.

7. The penetration of neutrons through the iron was found to be markedly different, depending whether the iron was magnetized or not.

8. A separate compressor must be inserted in the nuclear reactor in order to circulate the coolant gas, resulting in additional mechanical complexity and further loss of therma efficiency.

11. Найдите в приведенных предложениях причастие II -правое определение и укажите признаки, по которым вы его определили.

Не смешивайте причастие II в функции правого определения с формой прошедшего времени глагола-сказуемого. Помните, что если после такой формы стоит предлог, то это обычно причастие. Если же в предложений стоят рядом две глагольные форм«г-каждая из которых может быть формой причастия И нли глаголом-сказуемым, то первая будет являться причастием, а вторая -глаголом-сказуемым.

1. The performance of this type of propulsion system obtained In the initial investigations showed some advantages as compared with electric rockets.

2. Pioneer III, launched on December 6, 1958, entered an elliptic orbit with an apogee distance of 107,000 km.

3. Detailed analysis of data obtained in these ways showed that It is this current which produces the very marked variations over the geomagnetic equator.

* call for - требовать



4. The standard operating conditions employed included a 50V potential difference between the anode and cathode in the ion chamber .

5. The results obtained established beyond doubt that the high concentrations of particle radiation exist in these regions.

6. The results obtained showed no evidence of a marked increase of intensity of solar radiation.

12. Переведите со словарем предложения, обращая внимание на форму и синтаксическую функцию причастий и причастных оборотов (§ 20-25).

1. In fact the Sun is a variable star, its variation following an 11-year cycle.

2. The laboratory study of plasmas had been started long before 1929, many important discoveries in the field of gas discharge phenomena having been made in the 1800s.

3. Whereas solar infra-red radiation can be observed from a high-flying balloon as explained earlier, most ultraviolet and all X-radiation is absorbed far above the balloon ceiling.

4. Since the nuclear rocket is capable of producing greater thrust per pound of propellant, it can produce thrust equal to that of the chemical rocket while using less propellant.

5. With the maximum cycle temperature being limited by the source, the designer must determine how close he wishes to bring the boiling temperature to that maximum condition.

6. In atomic and nuclear processes energies are usually expressed in terms of electron volts, 1 electron volt being the energy gained by I electron being acted on by a voltage of 1 volt.

7. Observations made using artificial sodium glows are of great interest to the investigation of atmospheric structure.

8. The ions thus formed will be accelerated in the direction towards cathode.

9. Ohm supposed that wires presented a certain "resistance" to the passage of current, long or thin wires presenting more resistance than short or thick ones. The smaller the resistance, the greater the current.

10. When used in a space vehicle in which the orientation relative to the solar vector changes, the efficiency curve will change with aspect.

11. Using the value of the solar constant, it is found that the Sun is sending out energy at the rate of 9 hp per square centimetre of surface.

12. Having an equatorial diameter of 74,000 mi, Saturn is surrounded by great rings lying in the plane of its equator.

13. A man pulled by the Earth with a force of 160 lb is said to weigh 160 lb.

14. Interplanetary spacecraft using nuclear propulsion are • chamber -камера



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