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expected to be reduced in weight in comparison with nuclear rockets.

15. The word plasma was first used to denote a gas in which an important fraction of the molecules are dissociated into ions and electrons, the gas as a whole remaining electrically neutral.

16. Newton believed that the acceleration of the Moon in its orbit differed in no essential respect from the acceleration of particles acted on by the Earths gravities.

17. The electromagnetic wave theory of radiation, based on the work of Maxwell and Hertz, was so successful that we must try to apply it to the spectrum just described.

18. Radiation goes through space and when absorbed, it agitates the molecules of the absorbing material so that it is converted into heat energy.

19. The reader is familiar with the great technical importance of electron emission, as applied in radio tubes.

20. Molecules and atoms are in a continual state of motion, with an average velocity depending on the temperature. •

21. Having seen how the electrons in the ionosphere are produced by solar radiation, let us ask how the different layers a feet the travel of radio waves in the different frequency ranges.

22. This radiation, being little absorbed, penetrates to the D-region and there joins with the X-rays in providing ionization.

23. The alkali atoms have the lowest energies of ionization, indicating that their electronic structures change to a rare-gas structure.

24. The emissive type of photoelectric cell as used in telegraph and television systems is similar in appearance to the ordinary thermoionic valve.

25. A screen material of a different category from those so far discussed is white crystalline potassium chloride: this substance darkens when bombarded with electrons.

26. Launched on Friday afternoon. Mars 3 like its predecessor Mars 2, weighs just under five tons and is said to be on the same trajectory around the Sun.

27. As seen through the telescope, Mars presents a rather smooth surface.

28. When dealing with wave mechanics another limitation of Newtonian mechanics will be discovered applying to low velocities of the lightest particles, that is, low linear momenta.

29. Having challenged the established notion of a fixed Earth, Copernicus put the Sun, instead of the Earth, at the centre of the solar system.

30. A particular flight considered to be representative of early manned missions has been selected as the basis of this study.

31. With 40,000 or more computers being used now, it is obvious that it is necessary to assess their strengths and weaknesses to help make decisions about their use.



32. These properties - and additional properties theoretically predicted - agree so completely with the properties of light, as known from experiments, that the conclusion was inevitable that light consists 0 electromagnetic waves.

33. Fig. 73 shows the period of revolution of the American satellite Explorer I as a function of time, short-term irregularities having been averaged out.

34. It is apparent from our previous discussion that range does not have the same meaning when applied to energetic electrons as it did for a rays. The range is considered to be the distance an electron travels in a given direction and should not be confused with the quantity X.

35. In the history of physics the Michelson experiment, the Lorentz transformation, and Einsteins theory led to the first demonstration that the familiar laws of physics as derived from everyday experience and simple laboratory experiments are limited.

36. The demonstration experiment described gave the new evidence that the absorption spectrum contains only a selection from the emission lines.

13. Переведите со словарем предложения.

Обратите внимание на то. что слово, внешне напоминающее причастие, может быть служебным словом - союзом или предлогом.

1. Following the initial studies an extended investigation was conducted to determine optimum ion-chamber geometrv.

2. Assuming that the electron source, the supply voltage and the magnification are suitably fixed, the only important remaining parameter is defocusing distance Lo.

3. Volcanic eruptions may be classified in many ways, based on their activity, their relationship through time, or their violence.

4. The most generally useful methods for tracking space vehicles depend on the reception of signals from a radio transmitter within the vehicle. Given such a transmission either inter-ferometric or Doppler methods may be employed.

5. The penetration of neutrons through the iron was found to be majkedly different, depending whether the iron was magnetized or not, - .

14. Переведите предложения, содержащие служебное слово as (cJ - «так как», «по мере того, как», «как», «когда»; adv - «как», «в качестве»).

1. Physics is the most fundamental of the experimental sciences as it is the most precise and mathematical.

2. As altitude increases, the pressure and temperature changes.

3. A plasma may be defined as a mass of ionized gas in which the concentrations of electrons and positive ions are in equilibrium.



4. During this work it has been found that as the strength increases materials have a tendency to become more difficylt to fabricate.

5. The basic concepts of combustion principles are much the same as they were a few years ago.

6. As shown in Fig. 81, beta particles are stopped by less than 1 inch of solid material.

7. Water may exist as liquid, steam or ice.

8. As the air speed rises, the airflow about the wing changes.

9. The purpose of this book is to make available to everyone the status of the utilization of solar energy as of 1969.

10. Ай we are going to deal with waves quite often we shall have to study some of the technical terms used when considering them.

15. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод кон> струкций:

А. Инфинитив как часть сложного сказуемого (§ 8)

1. Plutos time of rotation is assumed to be б/г days.

2. When the Moon is nearest to the Earth in its orbit, it is said to be at perigee.

3. The highest portions of the aurora have been found to extend to a height of some 500 or 600 miles.

4. Some of the meteor showers are believed to have formed when comets that passed near the Earth broke up or lost some of the material from their heads.

5. As the comet approaches the Sun, gases seem to be exploded out of its head to form gigantic tail that points away from the Sun and extends millions of miles into space.

Б. For -f существительное -{- инфинитив (§ 18)

6. If oxygen is present on Mars, its amount is too minute for our instruments to detect.

7. For the resistance of a conductor to be measured, it is necessary to have some fixed standard, say, the ohm.

• 8. For a body to be in equilibrium under the action of any number of forces, two conditions must be satisfied.

Лексические упражнения le. Переведите предложения.

Заметьте, что при переводе непереходного глагола (А.) и глагола в страдательном залоге (В.) нужно учитывать лексическое значение подлежащего (а в некоторых случаях также существительного с предлогом, стоящего за глаголом-сказуемым) (§ 115).

Сравните:

А. The rocket travels... Ракета летит..,



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