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Зв. Прочитайте следующие слова нз основного текста:

processing [prasesio] image л flmida]

imagine [Imaedsm) finite [fainait]

variables pi [veariablz) view [vju:]

channel Itjaenl] evident [evidantj

instantaneous Linstanleinjas)

37. Прочитайте предложения нз основного текста, содержащие инфинитивные конструкции и причастные обороты, соблюдая указанные паузы.

1. We have only begun to develop the resources of television likely to become not only a means of entertainment...

2. If a picture is subdivided into a large number of small elements, I with each element being uniformly shaded,! the picture will still appear continuous...

ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА 1. ATMOSPHERE

(Для перевода без словаря)

Atmosphere is the gaseous envelope* surrounding the star, planet or satellite. Whether such a body can retain an atmosphere permanently depends chiefly on its mass, size and surface temperature. The molecules in a gas appear to be in constant motiofi, with their average speed increasing as the temperature increases. At any moment, a proportion of these molecules will be moving away from the surface of the body, and those whose speed is greater than the escape velocity for the particular star or planet will leave it altogether* and drift into interstellar space. Thus a small light body will constantly lose some of its atmosphere unless its surface is so cold that virtually no molecules can reach escape velocity.

A more massive body may actually increase its atmosphere by the reverse process: while travelling through space, it sweeps ирв interstellar matter by its gravitational attraction, and this is added to its atmosphere.

In its younger days the Moon is likely to have had appreciable* atmosphere but we have no justification to assume that this atmosphere was similar in composition to ours. The mere existence of an atmosphere does not mean that the planet may prove suitable for an earthman to breathe there.

Out of the 31 satellites existing in our solar system the only one known to have an atmosphere is Saturns Titan.

* envelope -оболочка

* average- средний 8 proportion - часть

* altogether - совершенно, совсем



virtually - фактически -

* sweep up "собирать add - добавлять

* appreciable - значительный

justification - подтверждение, факты

2. EINSTEINS PHOTOELECTRIC LAW

(Для перевода без словаря)

То explain the characteristics of thermal radiation, that is, the radiation emitted by hot bodies. Planck (1900) suggested that the emission and absorption of radiant energy by matter is in discrete quanta of energy h.

Einstein (1905) extended this hypothesis and postulated the quantum nature of radiation itself.

It is further seen that the absence of a time lag* in photoelectric emission arises naturally, the absorption of quantum energy is instantaneous as is the resultant emission of an electron. This is to be contrasted with the hithert( accepted view that radiation consists of waves, the energy m the incident beam being spread uniformly over the area of the surface on which it falls. An electron which is at the surface or near it requires some time (of the order of seconds) to absorb sufficient energy from the beam to be able to escape from the surface.

The simplicity of Einsteins equation conceals* the revolutionary nature of the concept underlying it. Light and all forms of radiation are emitted, and absorbed, in quanta of energy, the quanta being localized in space.

This is in fact a corpuscular theory, a beam of light or other radiation consisting of a stream of corpuscules called photons. Every photon moves with the velocity of light, and has a definite energy hv.

The study of the photoelectric effect was of major importance for the development of physical theory during the first two decades of the 20th century. The role known to have been played by the photoelectric effect during this period was largely due to the manner in which it displayed* the quantum properties of radiation which are not describable by the electromagnetic wave theory.

* lag - отставание, запаздывание 2 hitherto - до сих пор

incident-падающий

* conceal - скрывать в себе be due to - объясняться

display - проявлять, обнаруживать



3. PRINCIPLES OF FUSION

(Для перевода со словарем)

It is a property of nuclear structure that of the 104 known chemical elements the nuclei of the very lightest, and again of the very heaviest, are, less stable than those of medium atomic weights. Thus energy will be released from these heaviest and lightest nuclei in processes that are known to proceed toward more stable nuclei, the reaction moving in opposite directions for the heavy and the light nuclei. Because of these relations of stability the heaviest atoms emit energy when they split in fission and, thus, are greatly reduced in weight, that is, move toward medium atomic weights. On the other hand, the lightest elements emit energy when they are combined in fusion, hence, also, move toward medium atomic weights. Mass is found to disappear in both processes, and reappear as energy of motion or of radiation, the mass of the nuclei after the reaction in each case being less than the mass before the reaction.

The fundamental difference between fusion and fission reactions is that it is extremely difficult to make light elements react. The interacting nuclei all carry electric charges and, hence, repel each other. Whereas the neutron can enter a uranium nucleus and cause fission even when it is moving extremely slowly, and in fact reacts better the more slowly it moves, the hydrogen nuclei,

and H repel each other strongly and this repulsion must be overcome for the fusion reaction to take place. It is necessary to bring most of the nuclei in the interacting material close together to react and there is only one practical way to attain this condition-to cause all atoms to move with high velocity. At the extremely high temperature that is necessary, some tens of millions of degrees, the atoms move rapidly enough, simply because of the heat motion, so that they approach closely enough to each other for the nuclei to merge and the fusion reactions to take place. We speak of such reactions as thermonuclear reactions, that is, nuclear reactions caused by heat or thermal motions of the nuclei.

When the reaction commences, when some of the atoms approach each other closely enough for their nuclei to fuse, the energy, released from the nuclear reactions causes other atoms to be heated still more; they move more rapidly, and the rate, of energy release then increases. This process known to be the one that occurs in the H-bomb enables us to produce very high temperatures.

4. THE CALCULUS «

(Для перевода со словарем)

With an absurd oversimplification, the "invention" of the calculus is sometimes ascribed to two men, Newton and Leibniz. In



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