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reality, the calculus is the product of long evolution that was neither initiated nor terminated by Newton and Leibniz, but in which both played a decisive part.

In the seventeenth century Europe, a group of scientists strove to continue the mathematical work of Galileo and Kepler. By correspondence and travel these men maintained close contact. Two central problems held their attention. First, the problem of tangents (that is, to determine the tangent lines to a given curve) known to be the fundamental problem of the differential calculus. Second, the problem of quadrature (that is, to determine the area within a given curve), known to be the fundamental problem of the integral calculus.

Newtons and Leibniz great merit is to have clearly recognized the intimate connection between these two problems. In their hands the new unified methods became powerful instruments of science. Much of the success was due to the marvelous symbolic notation invented by Leibniz. Newton appeared to have been mainly inspired by Barrow, his teacher and predecessor at Cambridge. Leibniz was more of an outsider. A brilliant lawyer, diplomat and philosopher, one of the most active and versatile minds of his century, he learned the new mathematics in an incredibly short time from the physicist Huygens while visiting Paris on a diplomatic mission. Soon afterwards he published results that contained the nucleus of the modern calculus. Newton, whose discoveries had been made much earlier, was averse to publications.

Moreover, although he had originally found many of the results in his masterpiece, the Principia, by the methods of the calculus, he preferred a presentation in the style of classical geometry, and almost no trace of the calculus appears explicitly in the Principia.

Soon his admirers started a bitter feud over priority with the friends of Leibniz. They accused the latter of plagiarism, although in an atmosphere saturated with the elements of a new theory, nothing is more natural than simultaneous and independent discovery. The resulting quarrel over priority in the invention of the calculus set an unfortunate example for the overemphasis on questions of precedence and claims to intellectual property that is apt to poison the atmosphere of natural scientific contacts.

* calculus - математический анализ

differential calculus - дифференциальное исчисление

б. COMPUTERS AND ASTROPHYSICS

(Для перевода со словарем)

Astrophysicists have for many years attempted to understand the nuclear reactions and other physical events occuring in the interiors of stars. Such studies, once entirely theoretical in nature, are currently assuming a much more practical aspect because of



the search for thermonuclear power generating systems. Obviously, the astrophysicist is not able to make a star in his laboratory and measure what takes place inside it.

Until recently, al he could do was to make telescopic observations of real stars that could produce the observed results. In recent years, however, astrophysicists have taken to using the computer to test possible models of stellar interiors. The computers memory is divided into thousands of small areas, each "cell" representing conditions in a small part of the interior of the star being modeled. The materials in each cell, the reactions taking place, and the flows of heat and radiant energy between the cells can be represented by the experimenter as expressions he provides to the computers program.

Having set up such a hypothetical model of a star he wishes to study, the experimenter can then "start the star running". The computer calculates the results of the reactions occuring in each cell during a short time interval, then calculates the resulting effects during the next time interval in each neighbouring cell. The effect of each cell on every other is calculated. He can allow the computer to run for as long as he wishes, with the computer in each successive time interval simulating the action of the entire star by computing the interactions in each cell and in every other cell.

The outer periphery of the star will soon show the effect of these reactions (it will emit a certain intensity and spectrum of radiation; the star as a whole may expand, contract, heat up, cool down, or explode). The experimenter is then enabled to check the validity of his model against conditions observed in real stars.

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ

1. Укажите основные способы перевода простых причастий в зависимости от их синтаксических функци!! (§ 21, 22).

2. Какие функции в предложении могут выполнять сложные формы причастия?

3. Укажите основные способы перевода обстоятельственных причастных оборотов с союзом. Какое слово при переводе на русский язык явится подлежащим придаточного предложения, если такой оборот будет переведен с помощью обстоятельственного придаточного предложения? От чего будет зависеть время и залог глагола-сказуемого придаточного предложения при указанном способе перевода (§ 22) ?

4. Укажите способ перевода обособленного причастного оборота. Какие союзы используются при переводе обособленного причастного оборота, если этот оборот стоит: 1) в начале английского предложения; 2) в конце английского предложения (§23)?



5. Какие союзы чаще всего используются при переводе обособленного причастного оборота с предлогом with, если этот оборот стоит в начале английского предложения (§ 23, п. 3)?

6. Назовите глаголы, которые в форме причастия И могут быть первыми компонентами конструкции типа expected to reach (§ 25). Укажите способ перевода этой конструкции.

7. Какие значения может иметь служебное слово as (упр. 14)?

8. Какое значение придают словам префиксы sub-, super-, ultra- (упр. 33)?



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