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УРОК ТРЕТИЙ

Текст: The Rocket Weapon. «Грамматические основы перевода

Перевод герундия н герундиальных оборотов (§26-33). Различные значения служебных слов after и before (упр. Ю).

Лексические основы перевода

Перевод глагола-сказуемого с использованием языковой догадкн (§ ИЗ).

Перевод слов: succeed, expand, project, facility, lack, prevent.

Перевод словосочетаний to be aware of (smth.) и словосочетаний со словами all, long, due.

Перевод конструкций типа "as high as".

Перевод слов с префиксами anti- и counter- (упр. 24).

Перевод терминов типа «наречне + причастие (илн прилагательное) + существительное» (упр. 25).

ТЕКСТ THE ROCKET WEAPON

The rocket is an unusual device. It constitutes one of the deadliest weapons of modern warfare*, having realized its operational possibilities in the closing years of the Second World War. Nevertheless we are aware that it is one of the oldest known machines of war.

Here are some historical notes concerning the rocket weapon development.

The method of propelling incendiaries * is assumed to have been discovered by the Chinese. They are supposed to have used "the arrow of flying fire", which, upon being ignited", was able to fly by itself. By burning his enemiesprotective,structures, the ancient warrier succeeded in accomplishing much more effective destruction • than was possible with any other means at his disposal 4



Capable " of p г о d u с i n g great power and of attaining* the fastest man-made velocities, it is so simple in design and operation that some models have no moving parts at all

Although rockets have been expected by some to play an important role in the First World War they were used mostly for signalling. In the latter part of the 19th century with the improvement of other ordnance * types, rockets were generally abandonedInstead of employing the rocket the gun was used to utilize efficiently the energy of the expanding gases generated by burning black powder ** for propelling a missile **.

The Jater development of military rockets passed through a number of phases, as knowledge of explosives and combustibles improved. As early as" 1930 the military engineers were said already to be experimenting with highly explosive rockets in an effort to find some means of propelling explosives without u s i n g a cannon

The Second World War brought rockets back into the military picture for reasons that are well worth mentioning.

The gun was no longer** an adequate defense against the tank or the bombing airplane. Attack upon Armoured" vehicles required some sort of missile possessing enormous striking power and fairly flat trajectory, and above all, a missile that can be shot from a gun or launcher light and quick in movement.

For a time rockets were among the wars most secret weapons. The Soviet Army began using anti-tank and antipersonnel rockets in 1941 near Moscow. It was so unexpected for the Germans that they were unable to make out* what sort of missiles were coming against them. The earliest and most famous rocket weapon used by the Soviet Army was the rocket thrower" called the "Katyusha". It produced terrific concentration of firepower on an advancing enemy ground troops in spite of* its accuracy being inferior to artillery fire the weapon proved highly efficient due to* the releasing of a great number of projectiles at each discharge which made up for lack* of accuracy.

In 1944 the Germans began using their rocket bomb V-2 as operational weapons. The first test of these rockets in Germany was not successiul, however. After having risen only three feet off the ground, the rocket V-2 exploded, destroying the launching facilities".

The V-2 was mainly employed in the bombardment of London. Being some 46 feet in length it carried almost a tono of explosives; travelling at supersonic speed, it could not be heard a p-proachingits target. The Allies *** are reported to have follow-

♦ ordnance - артиллерия *♦ black powder - черный порох Allies -союзники



ed the course of every V-2 by radar, from launching to land-i n g, but were unable to prevent * them from falling in the London area.

In considering rockets, however, it is not necessary to assume that they will be used only for destruction.

We know that the development of rocket propulsion has been linked with the use of the rocket primarily as a military weapon. But the launching of Sputnik I established the rocket in the peaceful exploration of the planets of our solar system. It appears that there are many peace-time tasks that rockets may do well and efficiently.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Грамматические упражнения

I. Переведите предложения, применив возможные способы перевода герундия* (§ 33). Укажите, по каким признакам, в каждом отдельном случае, можно установить, что выделенная глагольная форма является герундием.

Помните, что глагольная форма с окончанием -ing является герундием (а не причастием 1), если перед ней стоит предлог, притяжательное местоимение или существительное в притяжательном падеже, а также если данная глагольная форма выполняет функцию подлежащего илн дополнения.

1. We can increase the current by reducing the resistance of the circuit.

2. Gases and liquids return to their original form as soon as the applied force has stopped acting.

3. The problem of accurately measuring the height of the aircraft above the surface of the Earth is a difficult one.

4. Translating from one language to another has been accomplished by automatic computer.

5. There are various ways of charging a body with electricity.

6. Leaving the earth means moving upwards against gravity, and this requires work.

7. The Moon keeps moving without slowing down considerably.

8. Before considering the process of converting the image into an electrical signal, it is necessary to consider the elements that make up a picture.

9. Landing on a celestial body that has no atmosphere can only be done by means of retrorockets.

10. This aircraft has proved to be exceedingly useful for pilots* training.

11. Lunik II made history by actually hitting the Moon on September 14, 1959.

12. A car is capable of accelerating from rest to a speed of 60 mi/hr in 10 seQ.



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