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2. Переведите предложения, содержащие герундий.

Заметьте, что перед существительным, следующим за герундием, отсутствует артикль н по внешним признакам нельзя отличить герундий от причастия 1. Проблему решает смысл предложения (§ 28).

1. For converting electrical energy into mechanical energy we use a special machine called a motor.

2. The idea of using hydrogen and oxygen as fuels for interplanetary rockets originated early in the 19th century.

3. From earliest times systems for weighing objects and for measuring them have been in use.

4. The Periodic Law pointed out the possibility of discovering new elements.

5. By the end of the eighteenth century the method of making rockets had greatly developed.

6. Combining small nuclei to form bigger ones is called atomic fusion.

7. The problem discussed in this paper Is that of determining system requirements for taking men to Mars and returning them to Earth.

3. Переведите группы слов, в которых функцию определения выполняет герун-дий или причастие I. Обратите внимание на различные способы перевода герундия и причастия в данной функции (§31).

Сравните:

operating engine -/?абогаюм<ий двигатель (причастие I) operating principle - принцип действия (герундий)

landing plane burning fuel

landing gear burning time

landing speed burning powder

landing field

boiling water

boiling temperature

4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия в функции определения.

1. Flying training requires some special types of planes.

2. The cylinders of an engine which become very hot must have some kind of cooling system.

3. The landing speed is-determined mainly by requirements of safety.

4. According to the size of the tank the liquid-fuel rocket can have variable burning time.

5. The nearly vertical descent of the parachute increases aiming accuracy.

6. The landing problem like all the other problems connected with rockets contains many difficulties,



S. Переведите группы слов (А.) и предложения (В.), обращая внимание иа перевод предлога перед герундием (in «при»; on «по», «после»; upon «по», «после»; Ьуспутеи», «при помощи»; without «без»).

1. in accelerating the aircraft...

2. in solving the problem...

3. upon returning to the Earth...

4. upon calculating the speed...

5. on pressing the lever...

6. on connecting the wires...

7. by igniting the mixture...

8. by applying this method...

9. without increasing the speed...

10. without using oxygen...

1. In rotating the magnet, we also rotate its magnetic field.

2. Rocket-thrust can provide valuable assistance in accelerating an aircraft.

3. Upon absorbing a quantum of energy from some outside source, an electron jumps to a higher level.

4. Upon reaching the injectors, the fuel is mixed with the oxidizer.

5. On connecting a galvanometer to the circuit we shall see that there is an electric current flowing.

6. A steam engine is driven by introducing steam into cylinders.

7. We begin our study of algebra by developing the idea of a vector space.

8. A glider is designed to fly without using the power plant.

e. Переведите предложения. Определите, является ли слово, стоящее в начале предложения, причастием I или герундием, и в зависимости от этого переведите предложения.

Помните, что глагольная форма с окончанием -ing, выполняющая функцию подлежащего, - герундий, а форма, выполняющая функцию обстоятельства,-причастие 1 (§29).

Сравните:

Heating the gas increases the speed of the molecules. Нагревание газа ведет к увеличению скорости молекул.

Losing electrons atoms become ions.

Теряя электроны, атомы становятся ионами.

1. Launching а satellite is done by firing it from a multistage rocket.

2. Overheating an engine is prevented by providing some cooling system.



3. Knowing tile landing speed and the load it is possible to calculate the wing area that will be necessary.

4. Landing on a planet (and getting home again) is a problem which has not yet been solved.

5. Measuring any quantity means comparing it with an accepted unit for that quantity and finding out how many times larger or smaller it is than that standard unit.

6. Directing artillery fire was the main task of the first military aircraft.

. 7. Moving through the magnetic field the coil * of wire will cut the lines of force.

7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод герундия от глаголов make, do, have и be.

1. Boron is used in making solid propellants for rockets.

2. According to the laws of physics a rocket will strike the earth after a free fall at about the same velocity as that which is attained in making its ascent.

3. Since power is the rate of doing work, the amount of work done in a given time is the rate of doing work multiplied by the time.

4. Neutrons were found to be particularly effective in making radioisotopes and were so used for almost every element.

5. Batteries offer the dual advantage of having no moving parts and of converting chemical to electrical energy without need to reject much heat.

6. Gamma rays differ from visible light only in having a much higher frequency and a much shorter range.

7. The new device resembles conventional two-element electron tubes in having a cathode from which electrons are "boiled" and another electrode to which these electrons flow.

8. The total weight of the cylinders has had to be kept as low as possible; this is done more easily by having a large number of comparatively small cylinders than by using a smaller number of large cylinders.

9. The credit of being the father of aviation goes to N. Y Zhu-kovsky.

10. In addition to being a staging base for equipment, the space station will also be a transfer point for personneL

11. A great deal of attention has been concentrated on the use of photon-counter methods for X-ray observations. These have the great advantage of being adaptable for use in satellites.

12. Besides being small in size, equipment of the transistor is light weight.

* coil -катушка

• credit -эЭ. честь



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