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8. Переведите предложения.

Запомните, что герундиальный оборот обычно переводится t ПОМОЩЬЮ придаточного предложения, которое вводится словами «то, что...» в соответствующем падеже или существительным с предлогом.

Образец:

The main disadvantage Основной недостаток первых ра-of early rockets resulted кет заключался в том, что эти раке-from the rockets being ты не обладали необходимой точ-Inaccurate. ностью попадания (были неточ-

ными).

1. When а fast neutron strikes а nucleus the probability of its being captured > by that nucleus is very small.

2. The less stable a chemical compound, the greater is the chance of its being transformed into another or several other compounds.

3. Launching a vehicle at greater than Earth escape velocity results in the vehicles taking up an independent orbit around the Sun.

4. When an airplane flies at subsonic speed, the air ahead is warned of the airplanes coming by a pressure change transmitted ahead of the airplane at the speed of sound.

5. The velocity of a moving object can change by its speeding up, slowing down, or changing its direction of motion.

6. The picture of atoms losing electrons was revolutionary at the time of Thomsons discovery (1897) because it involved the new idea that the electron is an essential part of a neutral atom, a part which in electric discharges may be torn off.

9. Переведите предложения. Примените все возможные способы перевода герундия и выберите для каждого случая наиболее подходящий.

1. In selecting the propellant combinations, chamber pressures and temperatures must be considered.

2. The Mendeleyevs table was used as a guide in determining many chemical and physical properties of elements even before their existence was known by direct observation.

3. Despite the long period of preparation the Germans did not succeed in solving the problem of directional control of rockets in the course of World War II.

4. During World War I the Germans used large powder rockets by sending them across enemy defences.

5. One of the most effective aid to planning is simulating.

6. There are in existence today a wide variety of instruments capable of detecting and measuring the various types of radiation.

- 7. The ancient Greeks were trying to explain the movements

capture - захватывать * Warn - зд. оповещать



of tfie planets by assuming the earth to be the centre of the universe.

8. It is worth noting that whenever balloons will do the job it is uneconomical to use rocket-propelled vehicles instead.

9. This aircraft has proved to be exceedingly useful for training.

10. The idea of carrying heavy armour on fighting airplanes appeared in the second half of World War I.

11. The early powder mixtures of the Chinese were good for driving rockets (as they burned rather slowly) but useless for bombs.

12. Computing a reactor shield* is a very complicated process if maximum accuracy is required.

13. Mozhaisky is famous for having constructed the first prototype of a monoplane.

14. Connecting two conductors of the same material and of the same length and size in parallel has the same effect as a single conductor twice as large as either of the two.

15. In ramjets combustion is continuous after having been started.

16. Before being exhausted from the ion rocket, the positive ion beam must be neutralized.

17. The problem of rockets coming down in places where they should not is particularly serious in the case of a meteorological rocket.

18. Luna 16 remained on the Moon for 26 hr 25 min and in addition to obtaining rock samples made measurements of temperature.

19. We shall discuss first Bohrs theory because in contains some of the basic concepts of wave-mechanics and avoids the complicated mathematics. It therefore avoids the necessity of the reader accepting results he cannot derive.

20. Understanding the mechanics of the Sun has more than academic interest.

21. Obtaining trajectory data is not usually a problem when the launching takes place at an established rocket launching site.

22. Before examining in detail the circuits of each part of the television receiver, it will be helpful to have in mind the overall picture of its operation.

23. The Sun was especially quiet shortly after launching the satellite, being indeed quite free of sunspots.

24. After being launched towards the Moon from parking orbit on 12 September, the automatic station Luna 16 was put into lunar orbit at a height of approximately 110 km on 17 September,

< shield - зашита

* rock sample -образец скальных пород

• avoid - избегать, обходиться без чего-л.



25. Information about tiie distribution of nuclear charge has been obtained by carefully studying the optical spectra.

26. Units of area and volume can be obtained by squaring and cubing, respectively, any unit of length.

27. For light passing from water into air, the critical angle in the wat- is 49°. In going from glass into air, it is 41°.

28. Although designed for military purposes this rocket, launched vertically, was capable of carrying a payload to an altitude of 100 km.

29. Ultraviolet light is far more effective in producing chemical reactions than visible light.

30. There are considerable advantages for many purposes in launching rockets from balloons. As an example, a rocket capable of reaching an altitude of only 15 km when launched from the ground will reach 100 km when launched from a balloon at a height of 80,000 ft.

10. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на служебные слова after и before.

Заметьте, что если после слов before или after стоит подлежащее, то они являются союзами; after «после того, как»; before «до того, как», «перед тем, как». Если слова alter или before относятся к существительному, не выступающему в роли подлежащего, то они являются предлогами: after «после», before «до», «перед».

1. Before the discovery of the structure of atomic nuclei, it was thought that there existed two general types of forces explaining all natural phenomena: electrical and gravitational forces.

2. Before the Second World War rockets were largely experimental.

3. Before attack planes came into use observation planes, fighters and light bombers were employed for ground attack with some success.

4. The word "helium" comes from the Greek word "sun" because that element was discovered in the sun before it was discovered on the earth.

5. After it became clear that some mistake had been made in the calculation, the experiment was stopped.

6. After a period of discharge the battery can be restored to its original condition by supplying energy to it from an outside source.

7. After the Sputnik had been launched people all over the world paid tribute to the advance of Soviet science.

8. For days or weeks after the reactor has been turned off, the radiation intensity is so great inside that repairs there are never attempted.



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