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containing vessel will tlien be due to the impacts of the molecules against the wall, while the temperature of the gas will be the measure of the average of the motion of the molecules, which increases as the temperature rises.

During the second half of the nineteenth century, this view of the structure of gases was developed under the name of the Kinetic Theory of Gases, and it enables us to understand the origin of the laws governing the behaviour of gases as discovered experimentally. For if the atomic theory is correct, then the properties of solids and liquids must be capable of interpretation on the assumption that, in the solid and the liquid states, the molecules or atoms are much closer to each other than in the gaseous state. Thus there is an interplay of consi derable forces between atoms and molecules in these states, and these should account for such characteristic properties of solids and liquids as incompressibility and cohesion. The atomic theory of matter, again, has been confirmed by direct experiments by means of which it has been possible to measure the weights of different kinds of atoms and to find their number per cubic centimetre.

4. CYBERNETICS APPLIED TO SPACE

(Для перевода со словарем)

Cybernetics is the study of control and communication mechanisms in machines and animals. It covers all automatic control devices, selectors, relays, computers and robots, and also the corresponding physiological mechanisms such as those of automatic balance and reflex action. The application of cybernetics to electronic computers is known to be leading to a better understanding of the working of the brain, and conversely a deeper knowledge of the "human mechanism" is expected to lead to the development of machines of almost human capability. It is known that Russian scientists have been making a close study of the implications of this work in astronautics and the results may be applied to the problems of spacecraft control and the remote analysis of the planets.

Cybernetics has brought about a revolution in the design of machines. By revealing the profound analogy between the work of the computer and the work of the control system of the living organism, cybernetics has brought a new approach to investigations in biology and medicine.

Cybernetics has been of great assistance in the pre-flight training of cosmonauts. Besides making it possible to design various automatic simulators, the science has given experts in space medicine methods for the exact analysis of all the physiological processes taking place in the human body under diverse Conditions. The results of this analysis have made it possible



to draw up a list of requirements wliicfi must be met by the spaceship, and it has also been possible to select the people best fitted to travel into space.

It is quite obvious that much greater accuracy is required in controlling the course of a rocket for a flight to other planets than that required for launching an artificial Earth satellite. What is more important, the very character of control of the spaceship during interplanetary flight must differ in principle from the techniques used for controlling orbital flights. The distances between the Earth and even the nearest planets are measured in millions, not hundreds, of miles. Under these conditions the fact that signals transmitted from Earth to the interplanetary ships and back will be subject to considerable delay will be of particular importance. The speed with which such signals travel cannot exceed the velocity of light, which exceeds 186,000 miles/sec. Although that is a very high velocity, under* the conditions of interplanetary flight, it is insufficient to permit control of the spaceship from Earth.

This extremely difficult problem can be solved through the application of cybernetics.

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ

1. По каким признакам можно опознать герундий в предложении (in using the engine; their launching produces noise; pilots training requires much time; Heating the gas increases...; The force stopped acting...) (§28)?

2. С помощью каких частей речи герундий, как правило, переводится на русский язык (§ 33)?

3. Какие формы имеет герундий и как они отличаются по значению (by using the method, after having used the method, before being used) (§27)?

4. Как отличить герундий в функции левого определеяия от причастия I в этой функции (landing speed, landing plane) (§31)?

5. Как можно определить, является ли слово, оканчивающееся на -Ing и стоящее в начале предложения без предлога, герундием или причастием I? Как нужно переводить эту глагольную форму в том н другом случае (§ 29-30)?

6. Как переводятся предлоги In, on, upon, by, without перед герундием (§ 32)?

7. В каких случаях герундий обязательно переводится с помощью придаточного предложения (The disadvantage resulted from the vehicles being inaccurate) (упр. 8)?

8. Какие значения имеют служебные слова after и before (упр. 10)?

9. Каким приставкам соответствуют префиксы anti- и counter- (упр. 24)?



УРОК ЧЕТВЕРТЫЙ

Текст: Some Ramjet Propulsion Aspects. Грамматические основы перевода

Группа существительного (§ 82-90). Приложение (§ 91, 92). Различные значения служебного слова since (упр. 8).

Лексические осиовы перевода

Зависимость перевода прилагательного от лексического значения существительного, к которому оно относится (§ 112). Зависимость перевода существительного от лексического значения правого определения (§ 111).

Наречия с усилительным значением (§ 120).

Перевод слов: Inherent, tend, specify, enter, promise, appreciate, propel, leave, suffer, lead, available. Item, Impact, technique, scale, current, present.

Перевод словосочетаний со словом so.

Перевод терминов типа «существительное + предлог -I- существительное» (упр. 22), «существительное-I-прилагательное (free или tight)» (упр. 23).

ТЕКСТ

SOME RAMJET PROPULSION ASPECTS

An alr-breatlilng engine produces thrust by taking in air from the atmosphere and discharging it at a higher speed than the speed at which it was introduced ».

The simplest air-breathing engine is -the ramjet - a unit having no moving parts at all and consisting simply of aiinlet* designed to convert the kinetic energy of the air to static pressure, a combustion chamber and final* expansion nozzle*. In principle the engine under consideration is similar to turbojet but the absence of moving parts permits operation at much higher temperatures. The major advantages of the ramjet are its extremely low weight, relative simplicity and low cost, but it requires operating air

* final expansion nozzle - выходное расширяющееся сопло

4 Зак. 849 97



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