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4. Какое место по отношению к основному слову может занимать прилагательное, выполняющее функцию определения (the radar tracking system available; available information)?

5. Укажите возможные способы перевода прилагательного, выполняющего функцию правого определения (§ 89).

6. Укажите способ перевода существительного с предлогом, выполняющего функцию правого определения (in use; under consideration; in question) (§ 90).

7. В чем особенность перевода приложения на русский язык (§ 91)?

8. Какие значения может иметь служебное слово since (упр. 8)?



УРОК ПЯТЫЙ

Текст: The Colour Spectrum. Грамматические осиовы перевода

Сослагательное наклонение (§ 34-39). Бессоюзное условное предложение (§ 40). Различные случаи употребления глаголов should и would (§41.42).

These - как заменитель существительного (упр. 9).

Различные значения служебных слов because н because of (упр. 10).

Лексические основы перевода

Перевод существительного с использованием языковой догадки (§ 111).

Перевод слов: yield, identify, occur, estimate, reveal, background. Inner, outer, upper, outermost, uppermost. Innermost, draw, throughout.

Перевод словосочетаний: to be familiar, in (with) respect to, со словами matter и but и типа is characteristic of (упр. 13).

Перевод слов с префиксами over-, under- (упр. 25).

Перевод терминов типа «seH-I-причастие (1 или 11)» и терминов, первым компонентом которых является слово direct (упр. 26, 27).

ТЕКСТ

THE COLOUR SPECTRUM

Light brings us the news of the Universe. Coming to us from the Sun and the stars * it tells us of their existence, their position, their movements, their constitutions and other matters of interest.

The first step in the acquirement of this knowledge is made when we use a prism to analyse the light. In every case we observe a continuous spectrum of colours running from red to violet in the order* of the colours of the rainbow.

By a closer observation of the spectrum, however, we find that the spectrum is crossed by an immense number* of fine dark lines, amounting to many thousands. To each of these lines there corresponds a definite wavelength and a definite intensity*. The explanation of the phenomenon can be based on absorption of radiation. When in the laboratory, a substance is vapourlzed* and made luminous ", the light it emits appears as a collection of iso-



lated lines and Is characteristic of the substance. No two substances yield " the same line spectrum and consequently the chemical nature of substances can be determined spectroscopically. Thus glowing *2 atomic hydrogen is characterized by a bright line in the red and since it is exhibited " by nothing but" hydrogen, it serves to disclose the presence of atomic hydrogen wherever it occurs <*.

When a beam of light which, if analised, would form a continuous spectrum, passes through a less brightly glowing vapour, which, acting alone, would give a line spectrum, the spectrum formed consists of a continuous background " on which dark lines appear exactly in the positions of the bright lines which the interposed" vapour would give by itself. The glowing vapour absorbs, from the light passing through it, precise у those colours which it can itself emit.

When we investigate the dark lines in the spectrum of the Sun, we find that these correspond line by line to the spectra emitted in the laboratory by various elements, iron calcium, hydrogen etc., brought to the conditions of luminous gases.

From this it follows that the light from the Sun must have gone through clouds of these atoms somewhere and in respect to20 such substances as iron or calcium, or most other elements, this must have happened on the Sun because there is no other part of the path о the light where substances can be brought to the state of a luminous gas.

The radiation emitted by the Sun would have given a complete spectrum were it not that on its way to us it has passed through an atmosphere.surrounding" the Sun and containing the various elements in the form of gases. These gases themselves must be luminous and be emitting light of the very frequencies which we suppose them to have been absorbing and therefore causing black lines to appear in the spectrum.

The hot interior of the Sun would have givena complete spectrum but the cooler outer 22 layers absorb the radiations of various wavelengths, thus producing the dark lines. These prove conclusively 23 that the elements that are found on the Earth are found also in the Sun and stars.

We can use the relative intensities of the lines due to different elements to obtain some fairly" reliable conclusions about the abundance25 of each element. If, for instance, we were to double 28 the amount of one element in ihe Sun, leaving the amounts of the other elements unaltered, we s h 0 u 1 d find that the intensities of the lines of the particular element would be relatively strengthened. It is by means of such considerations that we can determine the relative abundance of this or of that element in the Sun or in a remote star.

We can, moreover 27, not only identify *« the chemical elements in the atmosphere of the Sun and the stars but draw 2» conclusions concerning the temperature in their atmospheres. Astronomical



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