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spectra represent conditions wliicli range in temperature from a few degrees above absolute zero to 100,000° or even more in the atmospheres of the hottest stars. For the Sun the central temperature is estimated *> to be of the order of 20,000,000° C.

Of all the results of stellar spectroscopy, however, the most interesting is the uniformity of distribution of the chemical elements throughout 1 the Universe. It must havebeena revelation to the earlier astronomers when they discovered in the Sun the same familiar » substances - hydrogen, iron, calcium and the rest** - which they knew on the Earth. Their belief in the uniformity of the chemical elements must havebeen st rengthe-n e d when several mysterious spectral lines turned out to be produced by the newly discovered gas, helium. The principle of uniformity of chemical elements means that the atomic building blocks of the Universe are the same throughout space.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Грамматические упражнения

1. Переведите сложные предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое стоит в форме сослагательного наклонения.

Заметьте, что сослагательное наклонение употребляется: в придаточных предложениях после предложений типа it is necessary (образец А.); в придаточных предложениях, если в главном предложении имеется глагол или отглагольное существительное со значением «требовать, предлагать, желать» (образец В.); в предложениях с союзом if и as if (образец С). При переводе форму сослагательного наклонения передайте формой глагола прощедщего времени с частицей «бы». Обратите внимание на то, что частица «бы» может присоединяться к союзу.

Образцы:

A. It is essential that he should Inform us...

Необходимо, чтобб4 он информировал нас...

B. It Is required that an aircraft engine function properly... Требуется, чтобь* двигатель самолета работал безотказно...

С. И there were no frictional losses, a machine would be 100% efficient.

Если бы не было потерь на трение, коэффициент полезного действия машины был бы равен 100%.

Л. 1. It is necessary that the aircraft engine should combine efficiency and lightness.

2. It is highly desirable that physicists should solve the problem of control of dangerous radiations before we can widely use atomic energy.

3. It is essential in the application of the turbojet engine to the propulsion of missiles that the thrust per unit of frontal area be as large as possible.

4. It is important that the propellant remain liquid at the lowest temperature.



5. It is necessary that an aircraft engine function properly at a wide range of speeds, atmospheric conditions and altitudes.

6. To maintain an aircraft hydraulic system in good order it is essential that a means of operation on the ground be provided.

7. It is highly desirable that a person operating an aircraft have a good knowledge of the functions of engine controls and instruments.

B. 1. It is required that all research instruments be light and

compact.

2. Much of to-days scientific research requires the solving of difficult mathematical problems, some of which would require years to solve by the usual methods.

3. We wish Tsiolkovskys ideas were put into practice.

4. The demand is that all measurements should be made very accurately.

5. The fundamental principle of generator action requires that lines of force be cut by wires.

6. He suggested that the experiment with liquid fuel rockets should be continued.

C. 1. If there were no friction we could not even walk.

2. The Earth behaves as if it were a large magnet.

3. Our understanding of the nature of airflow would be much easier if the flow could be seen.

4. If there were no frictional losses in a machine, we could get as much work out of it as we put into it.

5. It would be much easier to compute satellite orbits if the Earth were perfectly spherical and had no atmosphere.

6. If one burnt 1 lb. of fuel and all the heat produced were used in heating water, it would be possible to increase the temperature of about 8V2 tons of water by 1° Fahrenheit.

7. If the Earths axis were perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, all parts of the world would have about 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness every day of the year.

8. If one could gather all the parts of an exploding atom, their total weight would be slightly less than the weight of the original atom.

9. In many cases air may be treated as if it were an ideal fluid.

2. Переведите предложения.

Заметьте, что форма сослагательного наклонения, образованная с глаголом would, может употребляться без дополнительного лексического указания иа предположение. При переводе, исходя из смысла предложения, употребите один из указанных в образце способов перевода данной формы сослагательного наклонения. Образец:

The rocket would leave the Earth... Ракета оторвалась бы от Земли... Ракета, вероятно, оторвется от Земли...



1. Without the force of gravitation there would be no pressure in liquids.

2. The Sun radiates as much energy every second as would be released by the explosion of several billion atomic bombs.

3. A body leaving the Earth in tlie direction of the Moon would experience the gravitational field of both planets.

4. By reduction in jet velocity it would appear to be possible to increase tlie propulsive efficiency for a given rocket.

5. Uranium is a very rich power-producer: the atomic power plant uses 30 grammes of uranium in 24 hours where a thermal power plant of the same capacity of 5,000 kwh would require as much as 100 tons of coal.

6. The problem of maintaining a store of liquid hydrogen in an orbiting satellite would appear to be relatively simple.

7. The transfer of liquid hydrogen from the earths surface to orbit would be rather more difficult.

3. Переведите предложения. Укажите в английском предложении сказуемое, выраженное глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (§ 37).

1. It is not essential that the stages in a step rocket be of increasing size.

2. If the bar magnet were broken in two, it would still retain its magnetism.

3. It should be understood that these diagrams have been calculated for a particular case. Other cases would give different results.

4. We all realize that if it were not for the friction between our shoes and the floor, we could not walk.

5. The scientific objectives may require that a space vehicle should maintain a fixed aspect* with respect to the Earth, the Sun, the fixed stars or even to a particular star.

6. If the Earth neither rotated nor revolved, one side would always have day and the other side would always have night.

7. In some calculations the air is treated as if it had no viscosity.

8. If the conductor had been moved slowly, the galvanometer deflection would have been smaller.

9. We have seen that electrons in crystals have wave properties as if they were in free space.

10. It is desirable that such power sources (nuclear batteries) should be ideally suited for a number of present-day applications that require power in remote places.

aspect - положение



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