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11. The whole weight of a body acts as though it were concentrated at a single point, this point being called the centre of gravity.

12. The accuracy of launch velocity required for an orbit round the Moon is higher than might at first be supposed.

13. It is theoretically possible that a part of the nuclear energy might be liberated by transforming either the lightest or the heaviest of the elements into others of medium * weight.

14. Without the Sun there would be no light, no heat, no energy of any kind.

15. Neutrons do not occur in nature and if they did, we could not accelerate them since they carry no electric charge.

16. It is necessary that the plates of a condenser be well insulated from one another.

17. According to the law of gravitation, the force of gravity between the Earth and the Moon would be twice as great as it is, if the Moon were twice as massive as it is.

18. Without sunlight there would be no photosynthesis.

19. In the early twenties the suggestion that pictures could be transmitted even by wire, would have seemed fantastic to many people.

20. Life could not exist on the Earth but for the heat and light which it receives from the Sun.

21. Since the information from the probe which passed Venus had to be sent back no less than 36,000,000 miles to the Earth the achievement would have been regarded as impossible if it had not in fact occured.

22. Ideally, the consumption of fuel would be minimized if the solar orbit of the vehicle were a transfer ellipse tangential to the Earths orbit and that of the planet, the Earth and planet being on opposite sides of the Sun.

23. The solar constant is the quantity of energy, measured in calories, which would fall in one minute on an area of one square centimetre at the Earths surface placed perpendicularly to the radiation, if the Earth had no atmosphere and was at its mean distance from the Sun.

24. The amount of gravitational energy which would have been released by the contraction* of the Sun, for example, from an indefinitely great size to its present dimensions is readily calculable, and is found to amount to as much as would supply the present rate of radiation from the surface for 46,000,000 years.

medium - средний probe - ракета *• mean - средний * contraction - сжатие



4. Переведите предложения, в которых сказуемое стоит в форме сослагательного наклонения, образованной с модальными глаголами may, might, could.

Запомните, что в этом случае модальные глаголы часто сохраняют свое значение н переводятся словами «мог бы».

Образец:

In order that the rocket may leave the Earth...

Для того чтобы ракета могла оторваться от Земли...

1. А space platform might be useful as a navigational aid.

2. In order that we may be able to find out how efficient the engine is, we must measure the amount of energy that we put into it and compare this with the energy that it produces.

3. Studies of the atmosphere show that temperature does not decrease as might have been expected.

4. In order that the rocket may ascend upward against the attraction of gravity, the force of propulsion must exceed the weight of the rocket.

5. The space station might be a way-station on the road to the other planets, and a rocket reaching it could fuel up again and continue its flight.

6. No useful satellites could have been launched without the development of the modern science and technology of electronics to provide the necessary guidance, control, and communications.

5. Переведите предложения.

Заметьте, что глаголы must н may перед перфектным инфинитивом выражают предположение и переводятся словами «вероятно», «по-видимому», «должно быть». Перфектная форма инфинитива означает, что действие относится к прошедшему времени.

Образец:

The temperature in the container must have been very high. Температура в конте11нере, вероятно, была очень высокой.

1. Originally the Earths temperature must have been extremely high.

2. The planetoids may have been formed by the disintegration of a planet.

3. Mercury must have lost most of its atmosphere while it was still hot.

4. Though, at the present time. Mercury could hold an atmosphere composed of the heavier gases, the atmosphere must have

escaped entirely if Mercury had remained very hot for any length of time after its formation.

5. In the early stages of the Moons history the rate of escape of atmosphere must have been very rapid.



е. Переведите предложения, содержащие в составе сказуемого глагол should.

Заметьте, что should может иметь модальное значение и переводиться словами «следует», «должен» (образец 1), или служить для образования сослагательного наклонения (образец 2).

Образцы:

1. The reaction should take place...

Реакция должна произойти...

2. If the body should move, friction would develop. Если бы тело двигалось, возникло бы трение.

1. И the temperature of the liquid should be raised, a large supply of more swiftly moving molecules is provided.

2. Obviously a flying machine should be stable.

3. It is necessary that fuel lines should be protected against heat.

4. The thermonuclear reaction should not be confused with the nuclear reaction such as takes place in the atom bomb.

5. It should be noted that a multiple-step rocket always has a greater take-off mass than a single-step rocket.

6. A molecule of water is the smallest possible particle of water. If we should divide the molecule we no longer have water.

7. It is required that an airplane engine should be well balanced dynamically and be as free from vibration as possible at all operating speeds.

8. It is desired that an engine used in an airplane should have the least possible fuel and oil consumption.

9. According to theoretical calculations, for a particle to produce a million electrons after travelling through the atmosphere, it should possess initially an energy between 10" and 10" ev.

7. Переведите предложения, содержащие в составе сказуемого глагол would.

Заметьте, что would может служить для образования сослагательного наклонения (образец 1) или относительного будущего времени (образец 2). В последнем случае would в сочетании с инфинитивом переводится будущим временем.

Образцы:

1. И would be interesting to note that...

Было бы интересно заметить, что...

2. It was calculated that the body would move... Было подсчитано, что тело будет двигаться...

1. Heat would be absorbed until the temperature of the absorbing body attains that of the heat.

2. Probably the early users of telephones never dreamed that there would be wireless telephone.

3. It would be useful to remember that the greater the vacuum, the more efficient the rocket becomes.



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