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4. If the Earth stayed in one place in its orbit, day and niglit would not change in length.

5. If a "short-circuit" occurs at any place in a circuit, a very large current is caused to flow, and this would heat up the connecting wires.

6. The earliest experiments in flight with heavier-than-air machines were all based upon the idea that success would be attained by imitating the motions of birds.

7. If our Sun were far enough from us, it would look like a star. On the other hand, if any of the stars were close enough to us, they would look like suns.

8. Contact with the vehicle was lost after one month, by which time it had been established that the orbit would not pass sufficiently close to Venus for capture to take place.

9. The laws of mechanics predicted that a lead * ball would fall to the Earth at the same rate as an iron ball.

10. A brief list of some of the obvious diagnostic techniques would include measurements of electric currents and voltages induced in the plasma, the use of high-speed photographic equipment, optical spectroscopy, etc.

8. Переведите сложные предложения, в состав которых входит бессоюзное условное предложение.

Бессоюзное условное предложение можно определить по порядку слов. На первом месте в таких предложениях стоит вспомогательный глагол should, were или had. Перевод предложений следует начинать словами «если бы».

Образец:

Should the engine fail, the airplane would have to make a forced landing.

Если бы двигатель вышел из строя, самолет должен был бы совершить вынужденную посадку.

1. Should the falling body stop all friction would disappear.

2. Were friction removed walking would be impossible.

3. Had the first satellite been placed into a much higher orbit, it would have been of far less use, as the point of greatest interest is the manner in which its movement is affected by drag.

4. The gondola of Explorer il stratospheric balloon was made of magnesium metal and it weighed 450 lb; had it been made of steel, the weight would have been a ton.

5. Should an electrically neutral atom attain an additional electron, the negative charges would predominate, resulting in a negative ion.

6. Were test data available the calculation of the parameters for designing a rocket motor would be made from these data.

lead -свинец



0. Переведите парные предложения.

Заметьте, что местонменне these (заменитель существительного), если оно стоит перед сказуемым, можно переводить местоимением «они». Исходя нз смысла первого предложения, укажите, какое слово (или слова) оно заменяет.

1. On airplanes electromotive force is supplied by generators and alternators. These convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

2. Navigation at sea and also by air still relies on the compass, which in turn depends on the form of the Earths magnetic field and its various changes. These are known from the continuous records made at magnetic observatories.

3. Becquerel used photographic plates and an electroscope for measuring the intensity of the radioactive emissions. These are still used to-day though in somewhat different form.

4. Some of the wastes* from nuclear reactors include valuable radioisotopes. These are radioactive forms of elements which were made "hot" in reactors.

10. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа то, что слово because-* союз «так как», «потому что», а слово because of -предлог «из-за», «благодаря».

1. Because our sense of temperature is not very reliable temperature measurements of our body must be made with accurate thermometers.

2. The energy which an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy.

3. The great astronomer Johannes Kepler made several most important discoveries concerning the orbits of planets which apply to the satellites of to-day, because any smaller body revolving around a larger one is a satellite.

4. Because of the relative complexity of plasma accelerator configurations, experiments are needed to determine the design of suitable plasma drive devices.

5. The problem of power generation from fusion reactors Is very difficult because of the difficulty of containing plasma.

6. Because the neutron is neutral the positive charge on the nucleus does not affect it.

7. Because of the Earths rotation, the centrifugal force developed increases the depth of the troposphere at the equator to between 9 and 11 miles.

11. Повторение. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия и причастия I.

1. А mass spectrometer mounted on rockets must be exceedingly reliable, simple in operation, and must operate automatically for a long time without requiring any additional maintenance and adjustments.

* wastes - отходы

5 Зак. 849



2. By mounting an ion mass analyzer on a satellite travelling tlirough the ionosphere and by telemetering its readings to the Earth, we can obtain information on the ion mass spectrum.

3. Since 1962 a new launcher designed specifically for launching delicate aerodynamic models has been used at the laboratory.

4. In determining the total vehicle requirements, it is necessary to establish the nature and the effect of the various components, parameters, and material making up the total.

5. Using these methods they succeeded in increasing sensitivity of the instrument.

6. Though the analogue computer is less suitable for solving algebraic problems, it is highly efficient in solving differential equations.

7. The launching rockets have a limited amount of energy which they can deliver to the satellite at the time it is launched.

8. The problem of launching missiles from the ground may be divided into two general categories: effects of the launching phase on the missile and the effects of the missile on the launcher and the surrounding areas.

9. Increasing the proportion of fuel reduces the critical size of the reactor.

Лексические упражнения

12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что значение выделенного существительного легко раскрывается без словаря, если опираться на значение существительного - правого определения и общий смысл предложения (§ 111).

1. Superiority in space flights belongs to the Soviet Union.

2. The choice of the propellant depends upon the type of the rocket.

3. The main feature of the neutron is lack of charge.

4. Our nearest neighbour in space is the Moon.

5. The validity of Newtons gravitational hypothesis was proved by the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846.

6. Mass is the measure of quantity of matter in a body.

7. The capture of a slow neutron leads До the formation of compound nuclei.

13. Переведите предложения, содержащие словосочетания <to be + прилагательное + предлог». Укажите возможные варианты перевода этих словосочетаний. Обратите внимание на то, что в некоторых случаях управление данных словосочетаний не совпадает с управлением их русских соответствий.

Заметьте, что слово "characteristic" в данном словосочетании является прилагательным, а не существительным и, следовательно, это словосочетание нельзя переводить «является характеристикой», а следует переводить «является характерным», «характерно для» или «характеризует».

1. It is characteristic of the kinetic theory of heat that all its statements are of this statistical kind.



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