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An early electrical telegraph operator could transmit perhaps 200 words per hour. The satellite communication channel could handle over 10" words per hour if it were used for telegraphy. This therefore represents a speed increase of the order of 100 million. As we all know, printing and telecommunication have both had a tremendous effect on our society.

A desk calculator of the kind that was in common use in the 1930s could perform two or three hundred arithmetical operations per hour. An electronic computer is capable of doing several hundred million operations per hour and is therefore a million times faster than the earlier machines. In a few years we have achieved a millionfold increase in the speed of computing.

If given such a technical advance, what would we expect to see happen?

First, we would expects to see the immediate application of the new machines to jobs that are already formalized and for which computing procedures are known. Such applications are mostly found in scientific computing and in engineering design calculations.

Secondly, we would expect people to work out explicit rules for doing calculations where the rules were formerly ambiguous, such as in business data processing.

Thirdly, one would expect people to look for jobs where computation might provide a good alternative to present methods of inspired guess work, such as in business planning.

Fourthly, one would expect computers to be used as essential )arts of systems designed to do things that simply could not have )een done without computers.

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ

1. Как образуются простые формы сослагательного наклонения глаголов (§ 35)?

2. Назовите простые формы сослагательного наклонения глагола to be.

3. Как образуются сложные формы сослагательного наклонения (§ 35)?

4. По каким признакам можно определить, что глагол-сказуемое в следующих предложениях имеет форму сослагательного наклонения:

If there were no frictional forces the machine would be...

The demand is that the method be used...

It is desirable that the device should combine...

5. Укажите способы перевода сослагательного наклонения (§ 38).

6. Назовите возможные способы перевода формы сослагательного наклонения, образованной с помощью глагола would (§ 38, п. 3).



7 Какие значения может иметь глагол should (§ 41)? Какие значения может иметь глагол would (§ 42)?

9. Укажите способ перевода бессоюзного условного предложения (§ 40):

Should the wing create more lift than the weight of an airplane climbing would occur.

10. Укажите значения служебных слов because и because of {упр. 10).

1. Какие значения имеют префиксы over- и under- (упр. 25)?



УРОК ШЕСТОЙ

Текст: Radar.

Грамматические основы перевода

Перевод несвободных словосочетаний с глаголом (§ 44-55). Обороты типа it follows (§ 54).

Различные значения местоимения it (упр. 10).

Лексические осиовы перевода

Перевод слов: fit, medium, straigtit.

Перевод словосочетаний to be referred to и as follows.

Перевод слов с префиксом re- (упр. 16).

Перевод терминов, первым компонентом которых являются слова long (упр. 17) и high (упр. 18).

ТЕКСТ RADAR

Everyone i s now familiar with the theory and many uses of radio. The use of radio as an aid to navigation had been well established before World War II. As early as 1939 most commercial and larger service aircraft were fitted * not only with communications equipment but with direction-finding loops * so that they were in a position to take bearings** on ground transmitters. Radio direction finding was, in fact, the basis of such navigational aids. Yet, one should keep In mind that the wavelengths available for radio direction finding before the war lay in the m.f. (medium* frequency) and h.f. (high.frequency) bands 5 and the inherent unreliability of these bands for direction-finding purposes, particularly at night, was largely responsible* for the statement that radio could only be regarded as an aid to navigation.

It was the application of pulse technique *** to navigational

♦ direction-finding loop -антенна радиопеленгатора »• bearing -пеленг

*»♦ pulse technique - импульсная техника



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