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21. Прочитайте следуюшие слова из основного текста:

beaiing [Ьеэпо] horizon [haraizn]

straight [streit] half [ha:f]

particulars [patikjulaz]

22. Прочитайте предложения, соблюдая правильное ударение и расстановку пауз.

1. ... the term being referred to 1 as a code word...

2. Now radar is largely made use of \ in peaceful applica-tions.

ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА

1. THE MOTION OF A RIGID* BODY

(Для перевода без словаря)

After the problem of motion of a particle the simplest problem of dynamics is that of motion of a rigid body. This last problem reduces to the following two problems: (1) the motion of the centre of mass G of the body, and (2) the motion of the body with respect to its centre of mass considered as a fixed point. Consequently, every problem of the motion of a rigid body, for instance, the motion of a planet or an artillery projectile, contains the problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point as one of its component problems. We are also faced with the same problem in the theory of gyroscopic phenomena known to underlie the construction of gyroscopic instruments, for example, the aircraft gyroscopic flight instruments. Therefore, the problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point is not only of theoretical interest but also of great practical value. This problem and the problem of three bodies are the most famous of all unsolved classical dynamical problems.

Although the problem of motion of a heavy rigid body about a fixed point is completely or partially solved in certain special cases such as those of Euler, Lagrange, Kovalevskaya, Hess and others, very little is known about the motion of a heavy rigid body when mass distributioij or the initial conditions of motion are arbitrary The same holds true in the three-body problem.

After the cases considered by Euler (1758) and Lagrange (1788), there was no progress for 100 years toward the solution of the problem of motion of a heavy rigid body about a fixed point. Obviously, a new approach to the problem was needed.

The success of Kovalevskaya (1888) lies in her new and more general reformulation of the problem in terms of the theory of analytical functions. Considering the time / - the independent variable -as a complex variable, Kovalevskaya proposed to find all cases of motion for which the parameters defining the motion can be expressed as meromorphic* functions of t containing five arbitrary constants. As a consequence of her proposition, she came to the conclusion that, besides the cases of Euler and



Lagrange, there is only one new case possible which at present is known as the case of Kovalevskaya.

* rigid - жесткий

2 fixed - неподвижный arbitrary - произвольный

* meromorphic - мероморфный

2. SONAR AND THE FOLRFH DIMENSION

(Для перевода со словарем)

The ocean depths - sometimes referred to as the fourth dimension at sea - are becoming witness to nuclear-powered streamlined-hull submersibles and to the missile-firing submarines. We are all familiar with the fact that seven-tenths of the surface of the Earth is covered by water, which adds further to


Ships gvro and fire

f- control

computer \\ j

Hydrophone rigtit of target

Hydrophone on target

Hydrohone left of target

Theoperation and system block diagrams of typical passive sonar equipment. An elemental system shows (left) A - the console and В - the rotating hydrophone.Sketches to the right illustrate use of a bearing deviation meter.

the importance of this high speed strategic weapon. For effective anti-submarine warfare, means have to be found for penetrating the submarines "cloak of invisibility". The mysterious ocean depths serve as ideal hiding places that cannot be penetrated to any extent by visible light, radar, or similar forms of radiation. The primary form of energy to be used in submarine detection is acoustic compressional waves of the sonic or ultra-sonic range. This is sonar - and sonar thus.represents the most effective system for determining the range, bearing, and depth of completely submerged objects in the sea.

What is Sonar?

Sonar, a word coined from "Sound Navigation and Ranging"* has come to be generally applied to the various types of underwater sound devices for the detection of submerged objects and for oceanographic measurements. These equipments have different



degrees of complexity and scope but their basic operational principles may be classified in two fundamental types:

passive or listening sonar; active or echo-ranging sonar.

Passive Sonar

Use is made of passive sonar to search for underwater noise-producing objects. Passive sonar can give target bearing at great range while remaining silent in itself. In a passive sonar system, the underwater sound is detected by acoustically sensitive hydrophones. When the compressional sound pressures reach it, the hydrophones generate small voltages which are amplified and are used to indicate the presence of the underwater sound source to the operator.

Active Sonar

Active or echo-ranging sonar is similar in operation to a radar system. Pulses of sound energy are transmitted into the water, and upon striking a submerged object, part of the sound energy is reflected back to the sonar unit. The echo indicates the presence of the submerged object, and the time interval between the transmission and reception is a measure of the range. Echo-ranging sonars have the advantage over conventional listening sonars of providing range information as well as bearing data, but have the disadvantage of much shorter ranges. This results from the reduction of the sound pressure in going to the target and returning from it, and the incomplete reflection of sound from the target. A further disadvantage of active sonars is the fact that they are responsible for high intensity acoustic energy in the water and are thus quite susceptible to detection by other sonars.

ranging - определение расстояния

3. OUR COSMONAUTS

(Для перевода со словарем)

"Space pilot" is a new occupation which has come into being for the first time in history.

The selection of people fit physically for space flight and the scientifically conceived special preparation and training of them were all novel problems. In solving them, the scientists proceeded from the peculiarities of space flight, from the results of the many previous biological experiments, from the knowledge of the conditions of a mans stay and work in the cabin of a spaceship and from the response an astronaut was likely to show during flight.

Naturally, a would-be astronaut could only be an absolutely healthy man possessing a high level of intellectual development and technical knowledge, a man with strong will, able to take



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