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instantaneously well-motivated decisions in a strained situation, to realize them immediately, and to evaluate the situation quickly and unerringly.

The selection procedure included a thorough examination of would-be astronauts in a clinic. Besides, use was made of special techniques which made it possible to determine fully enough the functional potentialities of the human organism and its adaptability to the adverse environmental factors.

Special emph&sis was placed on the psychological investigations. The preparation course included theoretical subjects dealing with the tasks to be accomplished in flight and training in the skills necessary for the space pilot to opej-afe the cabin equipment and scientific instruments. Na/ura y, the physical fitness of an astronaut was of primary importance in the pre-flight training.

Physical training was purposeful. Use was made of techniques and facilities employed in regular physical-training exercises so as to perfect the physical qualities essential to a man in space flight.

A good deal of attention was devoted to special exercises. Their principal aim was to let the astronaut get accustomed to the conditions likely to arise in space flight.

Thus, the training of an astronaut for space flight was a difficult scientific problem. However, in spite of all its complexity and unusual difficulty, it was solved successfully.

The first space flight in mans history, which Soviet cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin effected in the satellite space-ship "Vostok" has made it possible to draw the scientifically vastly important conclusion that manned space flights are feasible.

* would-be - зд. будущий

4. THE DOPPLER EFFECT

(Для перевода со словарем)

The Doppler effect is the apparent change of wavelength of light (or any other form of wave motion) when the source and the observer are in motion relative to one another.

The following analogy will illustrate the principle. Suppose that a ship is at anchor in a sea-way. If the waves are regular, a certain number of them are bound to pass under the ship during a given interval of time. If the ship were moving directly into the waves, it would encounter more than that number during the same interval, and if moving with the waves it would encounter fewer. The frequency of the waves as observed from the ship would vary according to the ships motion, and the same would be true of their wavelengths.

The principle holds true in the case of light from a star: if the relative motion between the star and the Earth is such that the star may be said to be approaching the Earth (or, in other words,

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the Earth may be said to be approaching the star) an observer on tiie Earth encounters more light waves per second, i. е., the frequency of the light waves will seem to have increased and tiie lines of the spectrum will have shifted towards the violet end. For a receding star there will be a similar shift towards the red side of the spectrum. Emphasis is placed on the fact that this displacement of the spectral lines can be accurately measured, and the relative velocity of approach or recession can be calculated from it.

In certain cases the Doppler effect may also be used to detect rotation of a star. If the rotation is sufficiently rapid, tlie relative velocity of the edge or "limb" of the star which is turning towards the Earth will differ from that of the limb which is turning away from the Earth. The spectral lines in the light from these two limbs will, therefore, be displaced in opposite directions along the spectrum, while the light from the central part of the stars disc will remain unaffected. This will bring about a broadening of the spectral lines.

Exactly the same method is made use of in radio astronomy to find out relative velocities from changes in the frequency of radio emissions whose true frequency is already known from other considerations.

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ

1. Какие словосочетания называются несвободными (§ 43)? (Ср. to take pert и to take a book).

2. Какое слово в глагольном словосочетании (to pay attention, to draw a conclusion) является основным в смысловом отношении? В KaKoii последовательности следует переводить слова для раскрытия значения глагольного словосочетания (§ 52)?

3. Как образуется пассивная форма следующих словосочетаний (§ 52).

to make reference, to make mention, to take account, to take advantage, to place emphasis, to give consideration, to give account.

4. Какие пассивные формы имеют словосочетания to make use и to take care (§ 52)?

5. Как переводятся на русский язык следующие словосочетания (§ 45-53) :

to be in а position, to be under way, to come into play, to come into being, to go into particulars, to take into account, to take into consideration, to bear in mind, to be familiar, to be aware, to be responsible, to hold true, to fell certain, to be bound (to do smth), to be referred to as (smth).

6. Как переводятся иа русский язык следующие обороты (§ 54):

it seems, it happens, it appears, it requires, it takes, it follows, it turns out that.

7. Какое значение придает словам префикс re- (упр, 16)?



УРОК СЕДЬМОЙ

Текст: Computers.

Грамматические основы перевода

Перевод предложений с инверсией (§ 93-97).

Лексические основы перевода

Перевод слов: feed, extend, neither, nor, add, subject, once, art. Перевод словосочетаний: along with, by virtue of. Перевод оборотов: this is the case и as far as (smth.) is concerned. Перевод слов с префиксами pre-, post- (упр. 2i).

Перевод терминов типа «сложное прилагательное г суффиксом -ed -f + существительное» (упр. 22) н терминов, вторым компонентом которых является слово proof (упр. 23).

ТЕКСТ COMPUTERS

(Fundamentals)

An automatic computer is not a "blacl< box" into which one could feed raw2 information, and which after a slight pause, would not fail to release finished reports, statements, schedules*, analyses, statistics, and answers.

Computers are devices which process* input* data to provide output data, but input information, which the computer is to process certainly is far from "raw", because in the typical case, the input information is itself the result of an extensive collection and processing operation. To get even one report from a computer requires the prior 8 application of a great deal of intensive skilled human labour".

Given below are some f u n d a m e n t a 1 s concerning computer operations.

(Computers perform with great speed and accuracy many operations that up to" now have traditionally been done only by human labour. Already they are showing themselves capable

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