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2. NEUTRON PHYSICS

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Although chemists, physicists and mathematicians had been learning about the atomic structure of matter for generations, a bhort thirty years ago the neutron had no place in their thinking, for it was unknown. But so important is this particle in to-days physics that a whole field of research - neutron physics - is based on its properties. And this new branch of science, young as it is, touches on so many important practical applications, that it actually is much more than a single field of endeavour.

How can it be that within thirty years this bit of matter has proved to be so versatile? Another "and very similar particle, tlie proton, although known much longer, has produced nothing comparable to the feat of neutron. There is no field of research called "proton physics" in spite of the fact that the fundamental properties of the proton have been familiar for a long time. In structure the proton and the neutron are much alike. They differ primarily in that the proton bears a positive electrical charge, while the neutron is electrically neutral. Yet this apparently rather trivial difference - the lack of an electrical charge - is the underlying source of the astonishing diversity of neutron physics.

After World War 11 the neutrons functions in fields beneficial to man advanced rapidly - so rapidly, in fact, that within a fev >ears the peacetime uses of atomic energy became a matter of international organization. In 1955 the first worldwide Atoms for Peace Conference was held in Geneva, and the great wealth of technical material presented at this conference on nuclear power was definite proof of the stature of the neutron in the field of practical accomplishments.

Yet important as these practical matters are -the production of electrical power, motive power for ships, and radioisotopes for medical and industrial uses - it is the function of the neutron in pure research that we shall consider first.

In basic research we are dealing with the laws that are fundamental to all matter, whether in the small world of the atom or in the astronomical scale of galaxies. The neutron, being a basic building block of all matter, is of particular importance in the discovery and understanding of these fundamental laws. Still more fruitful, however, are its interactions with other particles and wfh bulk matter; they reveal in many sensitive ways the most basic relationships among the ultimate particles underlying the structure of all things.



3. WHAT IS HOLOGRAPHY

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Holography and photography are two ways of recording on film, information about a scene we view with our eyes. Yet, how" different is the basic mechanism by which they accomplish their purpose, and how different are the images which result. As the words "holo" (complete) and "gram" (message) connote, the hologram captures the entire message of the scene in all its visual properties, including the realism of three dimensions.

As early as 1839 a French scientist Daguerre succeded in recording the image formed on the ground glass screen of a much older invention, the "camera obscura", a device to assist artiste in drawing more lifelike pictures of the scene before them.

Not until 1947 did the British scientist, Dennis Gabor, conceive of holography, a new and ingenious method for photographically recording a three-dimensiona image of a scene.

Although Gabor conceived his idea rather recently, he was still too early, for the special kind of light needed to demonstrate the full capabilities of holography, a single-frequency form called "coherent" light, was not available in abundance in 1947. II became available only after the Iaser> a new light source \\гЛ demonstrated in I960, was developed.

The first optical scientist in the S. U. who turned his attention to Gabors holography and began independent e.xperiments for the development of more sophisticated holographic systems was Yu. N. Denisyuk. By his experiments with Lipmann emulsions in 1962, he established a completely new orientation in the field of holography, completely different from Gabors and related schemes.

The advantages of holographic methods of information processing lie in the fact that In holography the initial information is processed in its entirety and almost simultaneously throughout the entire field. Such operations as scanning or spreading the image into lines, which are necessary in electron systems are completely eliminated in the coherent optical system. Holography, which enables one to obtain a complete optical wave lecord, presents the experimenter with nev/ and unusual possibilities, which force one to review many of the methods of physical optics and techniques of physical experiment. The most interesting possibility consists In the following: the observer may correct the optical properties of the object used in the experiment after the experiment is completely finished. Thus, for instance, a three-dimensional scene ma> be brought into sharp focus over an arbitrary depth. It is also possible to translate the observation point, to perform optical filtration of the spatial structure of the object and, in particular, to remove the aberrations of the optical image-forming system. However, the most astounding property of holography is that it allows one to perform interference between two light beams which



are not superimposed either in time or in space. Using the complete recordings of light with retention not only of amplitude but а1ьо of phase, it is possible now, using holography, to perform a wide variety of mathematical operations on complex functions.

The technological applications of holography - the utilization of the real image for purposes of testing, processing and manufacture-are just beginning to be developed. Nevertheless, they possess a great future.

Holography applications:

Three-Dimensionai Photography

Image photography Photogrammetry Contour photography Pulsed-lascr photography of

moving objects Underwater photography Sound vision Radio vision

Microwave antenna modeling

image Recognition

Reading of prints and manuscripts

Three-dimensional object

recognition Aerial photograph analysis Associative (correlative)

search

Volume Holograms

Wave photography

Memory systems of high capacity with an associative choice

Interferometry

Measurement of complex-surface vibrations

Measurement of unfinished complex-surface deformations

Three-dimensional phase objects. Aerohydrodynamics Interferomelric measurements

Nondestructive testing

Technology

Surface application of complicated microimages Microfinishing

Imaging through distorting media

Observation of the walls of

incorrect shape Image-coding

Observations in a turbulent atmosphere

Microscopy

Ttiree-dimensional observation of living micro-objects X-ray microscopy Electron microscopy

Cinematography

Three-dimensional projection systems

Television

Transmission of over distances

holograms

Optics

Compensatjon of lens aberrations

Lensless optics

Combined lens-holographic aberrationless systems



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