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4. TRANSISTORS-VERSUS VACUUM TUBES

(Для перевода со словарем)

Rapidly advancing technology, especially that related to missiles, satellites and electronic computers has made critical the need for smaller electronic components. Tubes have been miniaturized, printed circuits have replaced wiring on a chassis and crystal triodes and tetrodes referred to as transistors are performing many jobs formerly done by vacuum or gas tubes.

Before 1948 the transistor was unknown and electronics with a few exceptions was based chiefly on the vacuum tube which in various ways supplied us with the indispensable stream of electrons for our instrumentation.

The transistor development in many ways repeated-and often excelled - the history of the vacuum tube. It did away* with the heated filaments and cathodes and, consequently, with the uneconomic heating currents. Instead of the vacuum tubes "hot" electrons, the transistor works with free "cold" electrons.

Where transistors are used in place of thousands of tubes in giant electronic computers, the reduction of heat generated is extremely important, not only for more efficient, and dependable circuit operation but also for considerable reduction of cooling capacity required in some installations.

Nor does the transistor require the high voltages needed by the vacuum tube for its best functioning. Less than 15 volts is required in the average transistor radio set, in contrast to the 115 to 300 volts of the vacuum tube receiver.

Great as the transistors progress has been to date, its evolution has but began. In the beginning, great difficulties in manufacture were encountered. Over 80% of all assembled transistors were rejected. This trouble has now been mostly overcome.

Vacuum tubes wear and brake. Transistors are most rugged and so far no one has determined how long they will last. A probable life may be 50 years.

New uses for transistors are found daily. Research in practically every endeavour and art requires advanced and specialized types. Take, for instance, space electronics. One cannot well imagine a modern rocket or a satellite without a variety of transistors because they are shock-proof, rugged,, have minimum weight and minimum dimension.

- * do away (with smth.) - покончить (с чём-л.), отказаться (от чего-л.)

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ

I. Чем может быть выражена смысловая часть сказуемого (б случае инверсии), стоящая на первом месте в предложении



(Shown on the photo are... Revolving around the nucleus are... Of great importance to navigation are...)? Укажите последрватель-ность перевода слов в предложении с инверсией такого типа (§ 94).

2. Как располагаются части сказуемого по отношению к подлежащему в тех случаях, когда на первом месте стоят обстоятельственные слова тггпа never before, only и т. п.? (Only in this century have we found...). Укажите последовательность перевода слов в предложении с инверсией такого типа (§ 95).

3. Как переводятся союзы nor, neither и so, если за ними следует предложение, содержащее инверсию (§ 96)?

4. Укажите способ перевода уступительного предложения (содержащего инверсию), в котором союзы though или as стоят после прилагательного (Familiar as the process may be...) (§ 97).

5. От чего зависит перевод служебного слова not until (упр. 8)?

6. Укажите значения слова once (упр. 17).

7. Какое значение имеют префиксы pre- и post- (упр. 21)?



УРОК ВОСЬМОЙ

Текст: Semiconductors. Грамматические основы перевода

Перевод несвободных сювосочетаний с существительным и другими частями речи (§ 56-66). Перевод выделительной конструкции типа It was not until... that (when) (§ 99). Выделение сказуемого с помощью глагола to do (§ 9?).

Лексические основы перевода

Зависимость перевода глагола-сказуемого от лексического значения подлежащего (упр. 13).

Перевод слов: account for, pure, trace, average.

Перевод слов с префиксами semi-, trans-, поп- (упр. 17).

Перевод терминов типа «существительное-(-причастие I (ипи герундий) -I-существительное», «существительное-I-причастие 11 +существ i-телыюе» (упр. 18).

ТЕКСТ SEMICONDUCTORS

The group of substances known as semiconductors* has, in recent years, played such a major part in the advance of our knowledge of the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of solids, that it has an importance as a class of materials comparable with that of metals. In addition, because of their unique 2 properties, semiconductors are widely used in modern electronic techniques, for example, in rectifiers transistors, thermopiles* and non-linear* resistors.

Agreat deal of experimental work had been carried out on semiconductors before any satisfactory theory had been put forward 5 to account for* their properties. This is no longer surprising when we realize that it requires the quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics to account for even the most elementary properties of semiconductors. Semiconductors are by

* thermopile - термоэлектрический элемент



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