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by then

5. By then the results of the Curies work became known among those interested in their experiments.

on the average

6. It was calculated that an actual collision between two stars can occur on the average only once in 600,000 billion years.

now that

7. Now that the first manned space flight has been made, the dream of space travel is becoming a reality.

8. Now that the Soviet Automatic Interplanetary stations have reached Venus we are able to get a wealth of information of this interesting planet.

on the whole

9. On the whole the atom is electrically neutral, except for

10. Except for the Sun and the Moon, Venus is the brightest object in the sky.

11. Except for Mercury, Venus, and probably Pluto, each of the planets has at least one satellite.

no longer

12. The Investigations described no longer permit any doubt as to the atomistic nature of electricity.

a great deal, a good deal

13. A great deal of preparatory work has to be done before starting the real experiment.

14. Analogue computers are being used a great deal in work on guided missiles and also in solving aeronautical design problems.

15. We have said a good deal about automatic analogue computers and automatic digital computers.

In turn

16. The mechanical energy is used to drive a machine and the machine In turn does work.

once more

17. Due to the copper shortage during World War II, silver was used in the electric wiring of several war plants in the U.S.A.; after the war, when copper became available once more, the silver was replaced by copper.

at once

18. Atomic number gives at once the number of protons in the nucleus and the number of electrons outside the nucleus.

one another, each othei

19. From Einsteins relativity theory we can conclude that mass and energy are not conserved separately but can be transformed into each other.

20. In the ideal gas, it is supposed that the molecules exert no force upon one another.



10. Переведите предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое выделяется с помощью глагола do.

Заметьте, что при ререводе такой конструкции перед глаголом добавляются усилительные слова «действительно», «на самом деле», н др. Исключением являются случаи, когда в предложении есть другие слова со значением, близким значению указанных модальных слов (например: certainly. Indeed, actually н др.) (§ 98).

Образец:

The method does give us the possibility...

Этот метод действительно дает нам возможность...

1. The nuclei do contain most of the mass of the atom.

2. Turboprop (turbine-propeller) engines do use the gas turbine to operate the propeller.

3. The simple voltaic cell certainly does act as a generator of electric current, but as this current rapidly falls In value the cell is of no use for practical purpose.

4. In recent years it has been shown that chemical combination as well as external pressure does influence although slightly the activity of radioactive nuclei and, moreover, that radioactivity has important effects on chemical structure.

5. When in the 90s scientists studied some of the events that take place when an electric current passes through a vacuum, they came to the conclusion that particles smaller than an atom do indeed exist.

11. Переведите предложеиия, содержащие конструкцию "It was not until... that (when)", которая служит для выделения слов, заключенных между компонентами конструкции.

Заметьте, что из всех компонентов конструкции переводятся лищь слова not until, причем возможны следующие вариаяты перевода этих слов: «только», «только в», «только после>, «только тогда, когда» (§ 99, п. 2).

Образец:

It was not until the seventeenth century that man began to understand pressure. Только в XVll веке человек начал осознавать, что такое давление.

1. И was not until 1930 that the third type of particles that make up atoms was discovered.

2. It was not until around 1610 when Galileo first observed Saturn through his telescope.

3. It was not until 1600 that it was discovered that glass and certain other materials could be electrified.

4. It was not until the last quarter of the seventeenth century that some of the fundamental operating principles of the rocket were explained.

7* 195



5. It was not until 1936 that physicists felt that they had arrived at a satisfactory theory of what was contained within the nucleus.

6. It was not until about the end of the war that it was realized that turbine efficiencies were lower than had been expected, and were mainly responsible for the poor engine specific fuel consumption of that time.

7. It was not until the internal combustion engine had been fairly well developed that propulsion of lighter-than-air aircraft became feasible,

12. Повторение. Найдите в предложениях глаголы-сказуемые, выделительные конструкции и инверсию. Переведите эти предложения.

А. Глагол-сказуемое

1. The modern television cathode-ray tube uses either magnetic or electrostatic focusing.

2. This offers wide scope for astronomical observations, particularly of the planets, but also of infra-red emission from the stars.

3. These results led the German physicist, Hess, to propose that the source of this radiation was beyond our atmosphere, that the radiation was penetrating and that it fell upon the atmosphere, uniformly from all directions.

4. This demonstrates that blue light has a shorter wavelength than red light.

5. The source of electrons in an electron microscope is a heated filament.

6. Liquid-crystal substances are currently being used to create a new family of devices for the display of symbols such as numbers and letters.

7. The original thyratrons were filled with mercury vapour but other gases have since been used for particular applications.

8. The rainbow 2 is a complicated mixture of colors and its appearance depends on the size of the drops producing a rainbow.

9. The principal force between nucleons are of two types. One is the purely electrostatic repulsive Coulomb force between the protons.

10. The vacuum of space is nearly a perfect insulator against heat transfer by conduction or convection.

11. The size of the Sun is readily found from its measured angular diameter, when its distance has been determined.

* display - воспроизведение

* rainbow - радуга



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