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7. The absorption of a deutron by a nucleus may be followed by the emission of a neutron in which case the nucleus makes an overall gain of an additional proton. Alternatively, a proton may be emitted, in which case the nucleus gains one neutron.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод выделенных средств связи типа hence («следовательно», «поэтому», § 72).

hence

1. Physics deals primarily with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of matter and energy. Hence, the basic concepts in all physical phenomena are concepts of matter and energy.

2. The boiling point on the Centigrade scale is 100° and on the Fahrenheit is 212°. Hence, Г on the Fahrenheit scale equals fiVe ninths of Г on the Centigrade.

accordingly

3. Gases like oxygen and hydrogen will remain liquid only at very low temperatures (-150° to -250°C). Accordingly, we transport oxygen and hydrogen compressed in cylinders to 120 times the pressure of the air.

4. Although the technical development of computing machines is going on at a rapid rate, the general principles underlying their operation will probably remain unchanged for a long time. Accordingly, this book puts main emphasis on principles and methods rather than on engineering details.

3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных средств связи типа likewise («точно так же», «аналогичным образом», § 70).

likewise

1. А semiconductor in which n-type impurities predominate is also called n-type. Likewise, one in which p-type impurities are in the majority is referred to as p-type.

2. The total drag determines the top speed. Adding weight will decrease the climb and increase the landing speed; it will also decrease the .maximum speed. Likewise, increase in the drag will reduce the top speed.

similarly

3. In order to get a large thrust, a large burning surface must be used to obtain a large mass flow. Similarly, to obtain a long duration of thrust only a small portion of the propellant charge must burn at a time.

4. When glass and silk are rubbed* together, some negative electricity is transferred from the glass to the silk, leaving the glass with a net positive charge and the silk with an equal negative charge. Similarly, hard rubber receives negative electricity from the wool with which it is in contact, leaving the wool positive.

rub -тереть



4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод выделенных средств связи типа to sum up («итак», «суммируя, можно сказать, что», § 72).

1. То sum Up, the present chapter places emphasis on those )roperties of crystalline solids which can be understood on the )asis of present atomic theory.

2. To achieve a high jet velocity it is necessary to generate as much heat as possible for conversion into kinetic energy. As the gas is accelerated it loses most of its heat and exhausts at a lower temperature. To accelerate the gas, a high pressure is needed in the rocket chamber. In summary, then, to produce a large thrust, we need high mass flow, high energy and high pressure.

3. Electromotive force is present in the battery whether it is in circuit or disconnected. When the voltage of a battery in an open circuit is measured the figure obtained is e.m.f. If, however, it is measured when connected in circuit the figure obtained may be regarded as potential difference. To summarize, electromotive force is the total available voltage of a battery, whereas* potential difference is the active difference of voltage in an electrical circuit.

5. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова also и again, имеющие несколько значений. Обратите особое внимание на перевод атнх слов в функции средств связи (§ 74).

also: 1. также

2. кроме того; более того again: 1. снова

2. кроме того; более того; с другой стороны

also

1. So far, electrons have been treated as particles, but it can be shown that electrons have a wave nature also.

2. The warm air heats air above it. Also, the warm air will rise, and in going to a region where the pressure is less it will expand.

3. In this chapter we have created symbols that are associated with vectors. Also, various vector operations have been given that enable us to represent certain actions in nature mathematically.

4. While strontium batteries have a very long lifetime, they yield a rather low number of watt-hours per pound. Also, nothing can be done to alter the rate at which the isotope releases energy.

5. The curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon even thousands of years ago was regarded as proof that the Earth was a sphere. Also, the fact that different constellations were seen in northern and southern parts of the world was taken to indicate that the Earth was curved.

• wfiereas - тогда как

* constellation - созвездие



again

6. If at a given instant the velocity remains constant with respect to distance along a streamline, the flow is said to be uniform. Again, it must be remembered that, if there is a change either in magnitude or direction along the streamline, then the flow is non-uniform.

7. Solid sugar, when added to water, dissolves and forms a homogeneous solution. Liquid alcohol and water also mix in all proportions to form solutions. It is generally possible, by suitable means, to separate again the constituents of solutions, one method being by distillation.

8. The fact that electrical energy can be converted into mechanical energy can be readily observed in the electric motor. Again, electrical energy can be converted into heat energy by means of the commonly used electric heaters, for example.

e. Переведите предложеиия, содержащие слова otherwise и rather, имеющие несколько значений. Объясните, от чего зависит правильный перевод этих слов в каждом случае (§ 74).

otherwise: /. иначе, в противном случае; 2. в другом отношении, другим образом; 3. (имеет значение, противоположное значению стояшего перед ним слова)

rather: /. скорее; 2. довольно, весьма

rather than: а не; вместо того, чтобы

otherwise

1. From early times man has been continually creating and Improving devices to assist him in completing tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible.

2. Space vehicles can carry the scientists instruments as well as the scientist himself to regions otherwise not accessible to collect information otherwise unattainable.

3. A force is a push or pull which tends to start, stop or otherwise change the motion of a body on which it acts.

4. "External forces, whether lifting or otherwise, that act upon a body are termed "loads".

5. Unless otherwise stated, all vectors in this chapter are assumed to be three-dimensional.

6. For this to happen, the neutron itself must have a magnetic field surrounding it, hence be a magnet itself. Otherwise no interaction would have been observed.

rather

7. A rocket starts its trip rather slowly, but after its propellant supply is consumed its acceleration increases.

* homogeneous - однородный

• accessible - доступный



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