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по своей специальности. Именно для них в первую очередь и предназначается «Практический курс перевода научно-технической литературы».

Изложенные в настоящей вводной статье сведения о теоретических и практических основах перевода не являются исчерпывающими и имеют целью лишь бегло ознакомить начинающего переводчика с некоторыми особенностями перевода научно-технической литературы с английского азыка на русский.



УРОК ПЕРВЫЙ

Текст: The Modern Theory of Light. Грамматические основы перевода

Перевод инфинитивных конструкций: инфинитив как часть сказуемого (§ 8-14), инфинитив как часть сложного дополнения (§ 15, 16), инфинитивная конструкция с for (§ 18). Инфинитив в функции подлежащего (§ 2), определения (§ 6), обстоятельства цели (§ 3), обстоятельства последующего действия (§ 5), обстоятельства следствия (§ 4).

Местоимение it в функции формального дополнения (упр. II).

Перевод союзных слов that, what, how, where (упр. 12).

Перевод предложений с союзом whether (упр. 13).

Различные значения служебных слов for (упр. 14) и both (упр. 15).

Лексические осиовы перевода

Зависимость перевода глагола от слов, с ним связанных (§ 113).

Перевод слов: tain, fail, suggest, assume, exceed, adequate, conventional, common, ordinary, hardly, nearly, readily, necessarily, evidence, kind, sort.

Перевод словосочетаинй: In terms of, give rise, at least. Перевод прилагательных с суффиксом -able (vnp. 26). Перевод слов с префиксами dis-, in- (im-, Ir-, II-,) un- (упр. 27). Перевод терминов типа «существительное + существительное», «при-лагательное + существительное» (упр. 28).

ТЕКСТ

THE MODERN THEORY OF LIGHT

In the history of the theory of light we see that two very different models have vied * from the outset * as to which is the true model t 0 b e u s e d. On the one hand light was pictured as a wave motion of some sort, and on the other as a flight ** of fast-moving particles.

During the 19th century the former model gained* universal acceptance* thanks to a remarkable series of developments on both the experimental and theoretical basis.

* vie - конкурировать, соперничать flight -поток



The wave theory of light seemed to have defeated the particle theory when it explained the approximately rectilinear propagation. The theory was found by the physicists to be adequate enough to explain all the experimental results of the nineteenth century in terms of* the wave theory.

However, early in the twentieth century a series of observations on photo-electricity gave rise to a really serious difficulty for the wave theory. It was found that light could cause atoms to em it electrons and that, when light released an electron from an atom, the energy possessed by the electron very greatly exceeded 1" that which the atom could, according to electromagnetic-wave theory, have received. It was at this point that the wave theory failed" to suggestan explanation. It was this fact and others associated" with it that showed the wave hypothesis to be incomplete.

A return at least" to some extent, to the particle theory of light appeared to be necessary. In 1905 Einstein suggested that in order to adequately" describe these observations, it was necessary to assume" that the energy of a light beam" is not evenly spread over the whole beam, but is concentrated in the form of small particles proportional to the frequency of light. These localized concentrations of energy he called "photons" or "light quanta".

For the observation to be described in detail it is necessary to assume that the photons corresponding" to light of the wavelength all have the same energy, those of blue light having nearly 20 twice* the energy of the red. Photons are propagated like particles. It is assumed that there are usually a very large number of them, the energy in any one photon being very small. Thus in most ordinary 22 experiments, the energy of a light beam is evenly distributed , just as " a gas exerts a very nearly uniform" pressure on the surface of an ordinary vessel, because each molecule is very small and the number of molecules is very large. When the movements of an ultra-microscopic particle are observed the irregularities of the Brownian movements show the discontinuous 2 "structure" of the gas. In a similar waye, the atom presents to the light beam an area so small that it indicates the presence** of "molecules of light" or photons.

Thus, on the one hand, stand all the phenomena of interference, diffraction and polarization which are so well described by the wave theory. On the other hand, modern experiment has greatly increased the number and range of the experiments which are readily зв described in terms of photons. The electromagnetic picture has no place for the photons, and the particle theory has no place for the wave. Yet, both are required to give a complete description of the phenomena.

According to the present concept light has a dual s» character such that it may be represented equally well by waves or by



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