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8. In mechanical systems energy will be stated in joules rather than in ergs.

9. The nuclear rocket does not use any combustion process. Rather, the hot exhaust gas is developed by passing a working fluid through a fission reactor.

10. The material fn the airframe of a vehicle is considered "dead weight," since it does not contribute directly to the production of thrust. Rather, the dead weight imposes* a limitation on the maximum velocity.

11. It is not likely that the energy of fission will be used instead of the existing energy sources, but rather to supplement 2 them.

7. Переведите предложения, содержащие слова yet и still, имеющие несколько значений. Обратите внимание на близкие значения этнх слов (§ 74).

yet, still: 1. однако; тем не менее 2. (все) еще; до сих пор as yet: все еще; до сих пор; пока

1. The nucleus of an atom contains most of the atom s mass. Yet, it occupies little of the atomic volume.

2. Mendeleyev was able to leave gaps in his table for elements yet to be discovered.

3. Becquerel found that yet another type of penetrating ray was produced in a naturally occurring substance - uranium, as well as the X-rays from the cathode-ray tube.

4. As yet we have not considered the speeds of spaceships, still

5. Rockets may differ from each other. Still, the principles of rocketry are the same.

6. Everyone is familiar with general appearance of the Moon and its "phases." Not everyone realizes, however, that the Moon still presents the same face towards the Earth throughout all these phases.

7. The simpler phenomena of magnetism are known to every scientific student, but a complete understanding of the mechanism of magnetic action is still the subject of advanced research.

8. The planets vary in size, Pluto and the four nearest to the Sun being small compared with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, although still much bigger than the asteroids.

9. Solenoids produce stronger magnetic fields than straight wires. When a magnetic substance is placed within a solenoid, still stronger fields are created.

8. Переведите предложения, содержащие слово then, имеющее значения €затем», «следовательно», «тогда», «в этом случае» (§ 74).

* impose - налагать

* supplement -дополнять



1. The planets are divided into two main groups. The inner group is made up of four comparatively small bodies, Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars; then comes a wide gap, containing the minor planet zone, after which we reach the four giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

2. The chemical properties of isotopes are practically identical since these depend on-the number of electrons surrounding each nucleus. Isotopes of an element then are atoms whose nucleus has the same net charge, but contains different numbers of neutrons.

3. If the air in a discharge tube is gradually pumped out and a high voltage applied to the tube, then, as the pressure reaches a few centimeters of Mercury, long reddish streamers * pass down the tube.

4. It is not enough to say that the length of a thing is 8 or 96; we must give the units - feet, or inches, or centimeters. In short, then, to measure a quantity 2 is to compare it with some other quantity of the same kind.

9. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания, служащие для связи отдельных частей высказывания (§ 68-74):

to begin with, in addition, otherwise, hence, in short, alternatively, yet, first, so, as a result, to sum up, rather, again, nevertheless, conversely, likewise, also, then, in contrast, accordingly, in summary, briefly, still, moreover, second, further, similarly, however, besides, now, therefore, thus, first of all, finally, next, in consequence, lastly, furthermore, to summarize.

10. Повторение. Переведите предложеиия, обращая внимание иа различные значения глагола to be + инфинитив и на инверсию.

А. Различные значения глагола to be.

1. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the flow and density of solar plasma and the energy of its particles.

2. At the transmitting end of the television system the scene which is to be reproduced can be focused by means of lens system onto a plate in the television camera.

3. If a plasma is to be heated by magnetic compression, the compression jrate must be high enough so that fqw particles are lo-st during the process.

4. The role of theoretical science is to find the hidden interrelations between the empirical laws and interpret them in the light of certain hypothetical assumption concerning the internal structure of matter not subject to direct observations.

5. Emission in the short X-ray region is to be expected from stars which exhibit activity like that of the sun.

• streamer - язычок (пламени)

• quantity - зд. величина interpret -объяснять



6. The radiometers were to obtain Information about the planets temperature and atmosphere.

7. The function of the modulator in a radar transmitter is to switch on the Rf * generator at the correct moment.

Б. Инверсия (§ 93-97)

The light from the Sun passes through the atmosphere before it reaches us and some of the light is absorbed in the atmosphere. The consequence is that some of the absorption lines that are present in the observed spectrum of the Sun do not originate in the Sun but in the atmosphere of our Earth. Of particular importance to us is the absorption produced by the ozone in the atmosphere. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is extremely small; it is estimated to be equivalent to a layer about one-tenth of an inch thick at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. It occurs almost exclusively above the highest clouds, the greatest density being at a height of between twenty and thirty miles. Small though the amount of ozone is, the absorption produced by it in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum is so strong that all of the light of wavelength shorter than 0,000012 inch is completely absorbed; none of the light in this region of the spectrum is consequently accessible to observation. Unfortunate though this is for the investigations of the astronomer, it is a fortunate circumstance for life, for human being could not exist if there were not a small amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

Лексические упражнения

11. Переведите предложения, содержащие прилагательное sure (9,3) и сочетания с ним:

sure «достоверный»; surely «обязательно»»; to be sure «быть уверенным» (в качестве сказуемого), «несомненно» (в качестве модального слова); to be sure (to do smth.) «обязательно» (сделать что-л.); to make sure «удостовериться»; to ensure «обеспечить»

1. That no atoms were smashed by man before 1939 is a sure fact.

2. The spaceship Vostok was fitted with everything necessary to ensure the spacemans safety during the flight and his safe landing.

3. Scientists are not yet quite sure as to why some isotopes give off alpha particles, while others give off beta particles.

4. Space rockets are sure to assist in advancing our knowledge of high-energy radiations from outer space.

5. Out of the vast number of stars in our Universe there surely must be some systems with earthlike planets.

6. JWake sure that all traces of oil are removed from the magneto.

• Rf (radio frequency) - высокая частота



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