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5. Как переводится слово otherwise, когда оно является а) средством связи, б) наречием (§ 74)?

6. Какую роль в предложении могут играть слова yet и still (§ 74)?

7. Какие значения может иметь слово rather? От чего зависит перевод этого слова (упр. 6)?

8. Какие значения имеет союз while (упр. 14)?



УРОК ДЕСЯТЫЙ

Текст: Cosmic Rays.

Грамматические основы перевода

Перевод эллиптических коиструкци! (§ 100-104). Перевод сочетаний слов, выполняющих функцию союза типа in which year (упр. £).

Лексические осиовы перевода

Перевод слов: encounter, Impart, eliminate, finally, ultimately, eventually, recognize, arrive, effect, affect, somewhat, something, thereafter, therefrom, therein, thereby, apparent, occasion.

Перевод предлога by.

Перевод слов с префиксами de- и fore- (упр. 17у. Перевод сложных терминов типа combustion chamber surface area (упр. 18).

ТЕКСТ COSMIC RAYS

Primary cosmic rays are submicroscopic particles that travel in space outside the earths atmosphere at speeds nearly equal to that of light. Some of them happen to approach the earth and enter the atmosphere.

High in the atmosphere, most of the primary cosmic rays collide2 violently with the atoms they encounter* in the air, in which case they impart* their energies to the fragments* resulting from the collision. In effect these fragments or secondary rays are what we observe at lower levels. Like the primaries they too collide with atoms in the air, or eventually* with atoms in the earth, until ultimately* the energy is all transformed into heat. The term cosmic rays is used to refer both to the primary" and secondary rays.

Although an ancient phenomenon, cosmic rays because of their small effects went unrecognized > until the end of the last century and the beginning of the present century. The



total energy of all cosmic rays arriving" in the atmosphere per unit time is only about 10 microwatts per square metre, roughly" equal to the energy in starlight and a 100,000,000 times less than the radiant energy from the sun. Therefore, cosmic rays do not affect** life on the earth appreciably in any direct, physical way.

The discovery of the existence of cosmic radiation was a consequence of certain experiments undertalien " on the conductivity of gases. It was believed, on theoretical grounds, that a gas should be non-conducting in the absence of radiation, provided that the potential gradient across it was not so high that sparking** could take place. Curiously enough *, experiments undertaken to test this hypothesis showed that a sample** of air in a closed vessel always exhibited a small electrical conductivity in spite of every precaution *» to eliminate 20 radiation, and prevent leakage along the insulators. The conductivity was observed to increase in proportion to the pressure of the enclosed" air, and to be diminished 22 by surrounding the vessel with thick shields; therefore, it seemed to be due to some kind of radiation continually entering the vessel through the walls. И so, this was a more penetrating radiation than had ever been known before.

Various suggestions were advanced to explain this phenomenon, among them residual * radioactivity of the shielding materials, and spontaneous ** ionization due to the thermal motion of the gas mo ecules.

That these explanations were not sufficient to account for the observed phenomena was shown by the experiments of some scientists who, in the years immediately prior to 1914, sent ionization chambers up with balloons, and measured the variation of the conductivity of the contained gas as a function of altitude. They were able to show that conductivity, and hence the ionization produced in the gas, somewhat 2* decreased up to an altitude of about 2,000 feet above sea-levei, indicating sources on the earth, and thereafter 25 increased steadily up to the highest altitude which their balloons reached (30,000 feet), at which altitude it was many times greater than at sea-level. From this experimental result it was clear that, whatever the source, the whole of the residual ionization observed at sea-level could not be attributed 2« to the radioactivity of the earth, nor can it be a property of the gas with which the ionization chamber is filled. That the immediate source of the radiation is not the sun is a consequence of the fact that ionization was the same, whether day or night, and was therefore not due to rays coming directly from the sun.

Although the above conclusions were confirmed 2 by a number of physicists in the years immediately prior to the outbreak of the

• residual - остаточный

** spontaneous - спонтанны!), самопроизвольный



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