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first world war, it was not until 1926 that the existence of the cosmic radiation was generally accepted.

•The distinctive feature* of cosmic rays is a unique concentration of energy in single elementary particles. Though apparently* similar in substance (mainly protons or nuclei of hydrogen) to the rays that cause aurora borealis*, primary cosmic rays have individual energies about a million times greater, and penetrate far into the atmosphere and occasionally*" deep into the earth. Whereas** the average quantum energy in starlight is merely *2 2 ev, the average energy of single particles in the primary cosmic radiation is IQio times greater, or about 20 BeV **.

Such particles are not deflected by the electric forces that normally keep atoms and particularly the nuclei of atoms apart; they can penetrate through the middle ** of any nucleus and cause it to disintegrate and they can create out of their kinetic energies new types of unstable particles which otherwise would not exist naturally on the earth. The cosmic rays do not obey** Newtons laws of mechanics as do slower-moving bodies, but provide extreme examples requiring application of the principles of relativity,

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Грамматические упражнения

1. Переведите эллиптические конструкции придаточным предложением. Приступая к переводу, сначала найдите подлежащее всего предложения, с тем чтобы знать, какое слово должно быть подлежащим придаточного предложения (§ 101).

Образец:

When in rapid motion, electrons can produce.,.

Когда электроны быстро движутся, они могут создавать...

1. Though invisible in themselves, ultra-violet rays can be utilized in the production of light.

2. Although a medium-small star, the Sun is over a thousand times as massive as Jupiter.

3. When at its greatest distance from the Earth, Mars is about half as bright as the Polar star.

4. Once in the air, the jet aircraft is relatively simple to fly, owing to the absence of some controls.

5. Although a tremendous achievement, the first rocket-powered gyro-controlled missile was primitive by comparison with many modern guided missiles.

* aurora borealis - полярные сияния ** A BeV is equal to 1,000,000 electron volts



6. The airships are filled with helium, which, although heavier than hydrogen, is non-inflammable

7. Though highly tenuous 2 at this altitude, the atmosphere is still sufficient to exert an influence on the rocket.

8. Although the simplest form of the propulsion unit imaginable, the rocket can assume a large variety of forms.

9. Once in space, the vehicle moving at high velocity, say in a satellite orbit, requires no further propulsion to stay aloft

10. With the launching of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957, the Earth acquired an artificial satellite which, though of only temporary duration, marked the beginning of "the space age".

2. Переведите группы слов и предложеиия. Обратите внимание на выделенные эллиптические конструкции и запомните возможные соответствия прн переводе их иа русский язык (§ 102).

Образец:

Whatever the shape of the magnet, it has two poles.

Какова бы ни была форма магнита, он имеет два полюса.

Независимо от формы каждый магнит имеет два полюса.

1. Whatever the method, the calculation must be precise...

2. Whatever the weather conditions, the airport...

3. No matter how different in detail, many of the projectiles...

4. The radiation, no matter how small, effects...

5. However great the pressure changes, the density of the flow...

6. The general principles of operation of automatic voltage regulators are similar whatever the size and type.

7. No matter how complicated, the problem of space navigation is expected to be finally solved.

8. However thin the shock wave, the air speed is reduced and the air heated.

9. Whatever the source, whatever the method of production, the electrons produced by one method are the same in all respects as those produced by another method.

10. No matter what the nature of the surfaces that are moving over each other, there is always some opposition to the motion.

11. Whatever the shape and size of the body, - it is always possible to find one point at which a force equal and opposite to the weight of the body can be applied so that the body will remain at rest.

• non-inflammable - невоспламеняющийся

• tenuous - разреженный

aloft - наверху; в полете

8 Зак 849 225



3. Переведите группы слов и предложения, содержащие вллиптическую конструкцию "if any". Обратите внимание на способ перевода этой конструкции (§ 104).

Образцы:

The nacelles, if any,.. Мотогондолы, если таковые имеются... The nucleus determines the radioactive properties, If any, of the atom.

Ядро определяет радиоактивные свойства атома, если он таковыми обладает.

1. The boosters. If any,...

2. The cooling device. If any,...

3. The gravitational attraction, if any,...

4. The radioactive products, if any,...

5. The effect of weightlessness appears to have given Gagarin little discomfort, if any.

6. The observations provide definite evidence that the atmosphere on Mercury must be of extreme rarity, if any at all.

7. With no free oxygen and little, if any, water. Mars still appears to have some evidence of life.

8. The next problem of importance which occupied most of the investigators in this field was to determine the long-wave limit. If any, of the infra-red radiation.

4. Переведите предложения, содержащие эллиптические конструкции.

1. Although а theoretical possibility, the nuclear rocket motor is not likely to be used within the next few years.

2. Electrical disturbances, no matter how weak, produce radio waves which are picked up by the antenna of the receiver.

3. The total wing area will be determined by the gross weight of the airplane, the airfoil used, the type of high lift device, if any, and the required landing speed.

4. Galileo proved that objects fall at the same speed whatever their weight.

5. Though a quarter of million miles away, the Moon is our nearest neighbour in space.

6. When visible, sunspots are the most interesting objects on the solar surface.

7. The light of the Sun is very intense, it is about 900 million limes that received from Venus, when at her brightest.

8. No matter how complex the machine, it is always made up of standard simple machines.

9. Electric charge, although not directly observable, makes Itself evident by such means as the mechanical force between charged bodies, or the heating, magnetic or chemical effects associated with its motion as an electric current.



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