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10. The first observations of stellar ultra-violet radiation have already been made, and although preliminary» have yielded some surprising results.

6. Переведите предложеиия со словами типа <п which year в значении союза.

Обратите внимание иа то, что слово which, входящее в состав союза, переводится местоимением «этот» в соответствующем падеже.

1. High-altitude flight to explore and record temperature, humidity and terrestrial magnetism were made as early as 1804,

in which year a scientific ascent as high as 2,550 metres was made.

2. It was estimated that the vehicle would make over 200 circles V of the globe (over a period of 12 days) during which time it

would transmit to Earth information of conditions in the upper atmosphere.

3. Capacity may exist as a charge on" a single conductor that has no electrical relationship to any other, in which case it is referred to as self capacity.

4. The term high-speed flightis applied especially to supersonic speeds, in which field many of the problems are as important to rocketry as to aeronautics.

e. Повторение. Переведите предложеиия, обращая внимание на перевод средств связи и причастных конструкций.

А. Средства связи (§ 68-74)

1. The nuclear rocket does not use any combustion process. Rather, the hot exhaust gas i? developed by passing a working fluid through a fission reactor. Liquid hydrogen is the propellant most often considered for a nuclear rocket because it yields the lightest exhaust gas possible. The hydrogen could be stored in liquid form in a single tank and forced Into a reactor by a pump. After being heated in the reactor, it would be exhausted through a conventional rocket nozzle to obtain thrust.

2. In attempting to discuss whether life can exist on any other world, we come up against the difficulty that we have no certain knowledge of how life originated on the Earth. All the innumerable substances that we find on the Earth are the result of different combinations of some of the ninety-two varieties of atoms. The same atoms are found also in the Sun, in the stars in the remote universe. Conversely, no element is known to occur in the Sun or the stars that has not been found on the Earth.

3. Over a sufficiently long interval of time, the amount of energy returned from the Earth to space must be equal to that which has been received, otherwise there would be a noticeable change in physical conditions at the ground.

preliminary - предварительный «• 227



4. It is easy to understand tiie non-selfmaintained gas dis-ciiarge. Here liglit or lieat liberates electrons from metal surfaces; alternatively, X-rays or radioactive radiations generate in the gas the electrons and positive ions that carry the current.

5. A variable electric field is always accompanied by a magnetic field; and conversely, a variable magnetic field is accompanied by an electric field.

6. Our primary interest in absorption spectra is due to the evidence they give of atomic structure and processes in gases. Furthermore, an investigation of the absorption of light will provide a chance to compare the spectra of gases, liquids and solids.

Б. Причастие -I- инфинитив (§ 25)

The physical and chemical characteristics of the planetary atmosphere strongly influence entry characteristics. To gain an appreciation of the gas dynamic forces and heating involved, a knowledge of the density variation in the atmosphere is sufficient. The atmosphere of Venus, estimated to consist of about 10 per cent nitrogen and 90 per centcarbon dioxide, is sdmewhat more dense than the Earths atmosphere, but varies in a similar way with altitude. The atmosphere of Mars estimated to contain about 95 per cent nitrogen and 5 per cent carbon dioxide, is appreciably less dense than the Earths atmosphere at surface level, but drops off much more gradually with increasing altitude and is actually more dense at high altitudes. The more gradual density variation on the Martian atmosphere makes it "softer," so that it would involve a comparatively less severe entry.

B. Причастные обороты с союзами (§ 22)

1. The На line of hydrogen appearing in the early stages of auroral phenomena is considerably broadened when viewed towards the magnetic horizon and both broadened and displaced when viewed towards the magnetic zenith.

2. On several occasions, while discussing absorption spectra we have mentioned the "lifetime of an excited state" of an atom.

3. If the electron is at rest, it will not be affected by a magnetic field, but when moving it behaves like a conductor carrying a current, and experiences a corresponding force.

4. Recall that Planck believed that light, although emitted from its source discontinuously, travels through space as an electromagnetic wave.

5. Because of its very small mass, the electron has the advantage of keeping its kinetic energy when suffering elastic collisions.

auroral - вызванный полярным сиянием excite - возбуждать



Лексические упражнения

7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа перевод выделенных глаголов.

encounter (10,4)

1. Once а solid propellant motor is ignited, it is difficult to turn it off, a limitation not encountered in the liquid propellant engine.

2. When radiant energy encounters a body or matter, part of the energy is stopped or absorbed by the matter.

3. An object becomes weightless when it is free to move through space without encountering resistance.

Impart (10,5)

4. The final stage of this multiple-rocket will Impart roughly fifty per cent of the required velocity to the satellite itself.

5. In the case of a rocket, the greatest possible quantity of thermal energy must be imparted to the matter ejected.

6. Our only interest in the jet forces concerns the accelerations, both linear and angular, that they impart to the rocket.

eliminate (10,20)

7. In order to eliminate the drag of the landing gear during the flight, the wheels are usually retracted into the body or wings.

8. In the principle of momentum the internal forces are eliminated; in the principle of energy they are not eliminated, except in the special case where they do no work and so contribute nothing to weight.

8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа близкие по значению наречия finally (4,4), ultimately (10,9), eventually (10,8).

1. Table II shows the complete series of radioactive elements, from uranium through radium and radon finally to lead * which is not radioactive.

2. Heat produced by a radioisotope power system must eventually be radiated from the vehicle.

3. Some specialists believe that we shall ultimately have to depend on the radiant energy that we receive directly from the Sun.

4. Mendeleyev left blank spaces in his table predicting that eventually the missing elements would be found and described their properties.

9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа многозначность выделенных глаголов.

recognize (10,10)

1. That some force is necessary to hold the planets in their elliptical orbits had been recognized before Newton.



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