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)articles. The wave and particle properties of light are found )y modern scientists to be two different aspects of the same thing. These two aspects are to be regarded as complementary 32 rather than antagonistic, each being correct when dealing with the phenomena in its own domain in macroscopic effects light can be treated as a continuous wave and in microscopic ones the photon aspect begins to become important.

Though there seems to be no doubtas to the essential correctness of this theory we still find it difficult to understand how these two theories can both be true. Yet, we are forced to do so by the mass of good evidence з which can be brought forward in support of each of them. The acceptance of this concept required a fundamental з» change in our ideas.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Грамматические упражнения

1, Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию «инфинитив как часть сказуемого» (§ 8). Укажите возможные способы перевода конструкции.

Назовите глаголы - первые компоненты сказуемого, которые помогают опознать данную конструкцию.

Образец:

А body is said to be in motion...

Тело, как говорят, находится в движении... Говорят, что тело находится в движении...

1. Light is thought to be...

2. The speed of these particles is found to be...

3. The rocket is known to be used...

4. These forces are believed to act...

5. The changes in the orbit are considered to be...

6. These charged particles are supposed to possess...

7. The planet is expected to have...

8. The direction of the current is assumed to be...

9. The diameter of this star is reported to be...

10. This cyclotron appears to develop...

11. The solid fuel rocket seems to be...

12. The speed of particles happens to change...

13. These conditions are likely to be found...

14. Uranium is unlikely to exist...

2. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию «инфинитив как часть сказуемого». Обратите внимание на форму инфинитива (§ И).

Образец:

The results are known to be used... Результаты, как известно, используются...



The results are known to have been used... Результаты, как известно, были использованы..,

{. The rocket is found to develop speed...

2. The rocket is found to have developed speed.,.

3. The rocket was found to develop speed...

4. The rocket has been found to deve op speed..,

5. The properties of the elements are known to vary...

6. The properties of the elements are known to have varied..,

7. This limitation appears to have been overcome,,.

8. This limitation appeared to be overcome...

3. Переведите предложения, содержащие в составе сказуемого инфинитив. Укажите, к какому компоненту сказуемого следует отнести при переводе отрицание (предложение 22). Укажите, где будет стоять модальный глагол в предложениях 23-26. Обратите также внимание на перевод группы существительного с предлогом, стоящей между первым компонентом сказуемого и инфинитивом (предложения 18 и 19).

1. The Sun is known to have a 11-year cycle of activity.

2. The proton is found to be 1840 times heavier than the electron.

3. The speed of light in vacua is one of the fundamental physical constants and has been found to be very close to 3.00X10*" centimetres per second.

4. Sputn к II is reported to have weighed about 1120 pounds.

5. The Sun of a certain galaxy is said to have a diameter more than 16 times the distance from the Sun to the Earth.

6. The first Earths satellites were expected to stay on their orbits for a month or two.

7. Heat was thought to be a material substance.

8. The atmosphere of Saturn is believed to be about 16,000 miles deep.

9. Billions of stars are assumed to exist in the universe.

10. Some of the meteors are supposed to have formed when comets that passed near the Earth broke up.

11. The surface temperature of Mars seems to range from 30° С down to -60° C.

12. The circle where earth and the sky seem to meet is the horizon.

13. Our galaxy proved to be a spiral system.

14. When a planet has been proved to have an atmosphere, we naturally wish to find out as much as possible about the composition of the atmosphere.

15. Stars appear to be made of the elements that have been found in our Sun.

16. In contrast to the Moon and the Earth, Mars appears to have a relatively smooth surface.

17. The neutron was shown to be a magnet by simple experiments.



18. In physics the words nucleus and nuclei refer to the positively charged bodies which were shown by Rutherford to exist at the centre of the atoms of all substances.

19. The ratio 1 of charge to mass, e/m, for alpha particles was found by magnetic deflection measurements to be about half that for a proton.

20. The electric rocket is likely to remain a low-thrust device.

21. The rocket is unlikely to generate a velocity much greater than twice its exhaust velocity \

22. This method does not appear to offer any advantages for it depends on the production of materials with higher strength to weight ratios,-

23. Although the neutron may seem to be a simple particle, having no electric charge but a small magnetic field, in modern theories the neutron is thought of as a complicated structure indeed.

24. In the millimetre wave region, the maser may eventually prove to be the best coherent detector.

25. Satellites in general move jn elliptical orbits and they may be considered to have accelerations directed both towards the centre of the earth and in a perpendicular direction.

26. The rocket may be said to work on the reaction principle.

27. It does not seem to be possible at present to discuss a close correlation between the sunspot number and magnetic activity.

4. Определите функцию инфинитива, стоящего в начале предложения, и переведите предложения (§ 2, 3).

Помните, что существительное без предлога, следующее за ннфинити. вом, является дополнением к инфинитиву и его не следует принимать за подлежащее-

Образец:

То learn the principles of lift the scientists had to... (инфинитив-обстоятельство цели)

Для того чтобы изучить принципы действия подъемной силы, ученые должны были...

То learn the principles of lift was... (инфинитив - подлежащее)

Изучить принципы действия подъемной силы было...

1. То move from one astronomical body to another means to overcome gravitational forces.

2. To accelerate the gas a high pressure is needed in the rocket chamber *.

3. To land a high speed aircraft is a delicate operation even when visibility is good.

• ratio - соотношение

* exhaust velocity - скорость истечения (газов из сопла) eventually - в конечном счете

chamber - камера



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