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7. It is a safe assumption tiiat improvements in construction will play a great part in the reduction of the all-up weight of future space vehicles.

8. It Is safe to assume that near the Earths surface all meteoritic material travels in the velocity range from 11.3 to 73 m/sec.

9. To be sure, Reynolds was not the first to observe and analyse the phenomena of turbulent flow.

10. An automatic computer, it Is true, may be instructed to perform the change automatically.

11. Needless to say, studies of the structure and chemical composition of meteorites provide us with exceedingly important information concerning the nature of matter.

12. Formerly, meteors were often called falling stars or shooting stars. To say the truth, there is nothing at all in common between real stars (distant suns) and meteors that glow through the Earths atmosphere.

13. It Is certain that cosmic rays studies yield very important facts about the upper layers of the atmosphere.

14. To be sure, the worlds supply of petroleum, if we keep on burning it as fast as we do to-day, may be used up in the near future.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов, выражающих вероятность («по-видимому», «очевидно») (§ 77).

1. Perhaps, one of the most outstanding achievements of the 20th century is the launching of the artificial satellite.

2. я-meson and (i-meson can have positive or negative charges. They are apparently created by the primary cosmic ray in a nuclear explosion process.

3. Rutherford noticed as early as 1914 that when alpha particles were shot into nitrogen, some high-speed long-range particles, presumably protons, were out.

4. High-speed flight now implies flight at speeds of the order of the speed of sound in air, or faster - say, 700 miles per hour or more.

3. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод выделенных слов, словосочетаний и оборотов, дающих оценку высказыванию с точки зрения его желательности нлн нежелательности («к счастью», «к сожалению», «к нашему удивлению») (§ 78).

1. Happily, the probability of a rocket ship encountering a random meteor is not very great.

2. It is most unfortunate that our present understanding of the physical phenomena which underlie the emission of electrons from the cathode of a vacuum tube is still insufficient.

3. Curiously enough, a very small amount of material is required to cause a visible emission of light.

* imply - предполагать



4. Strange enough, nearly half a century passed before any trace of the Tunguska meteorite was found.

5. ft is hardly surprising, that in modern radar systems, more and more emphasis is being placed on the accurate control or knowledge of transmitter phase.

4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов и словосочетаний, служащих для выделения или уточнения («вообще говоря», «точнее говоря», «в известном смысле», «в лучшем случае» н т. д.) (§ 79).

1. Generally speaking, we may call any waves of length less than 100 meters short waves, although the tendency is to apply that term only to waves of 50 meters or less.

2. Strictly speaking, the tail plane is not a control surface.

3. In this book we shall be concerned with the progress made on aircraft structure, or more generally, in aircraft design.

4. All the electronic computers may, in a general sense, be said to have the same logical design and they consist of five main parts.

5. In a broad sense, electronics may be said to be concerned with the emission of electrons, the interaction of electrons with electric and magnetic fields, the flow of electrons in various kinds of circuits and the production and interaction of electromagnetic radiation.

6. A large military searchlight is a photon rocket in a sense.

7. Wavelengths can be measured with an accuracy of 0.001 A at best.

8. Using this method of measurement we can get only average figures at best.

9. The number of hyperbolic meteors, coming from interstellar space, is at most 1 per cent of the total quantity.

10. Another ten years, at the most, will see nuclear-powered aircraft in the air.

11. There are certain processes for which D. C. is either essential or at any rate desirable.

12. It is not possible to predict all the fields in which we shall use atomic energy. At any rate, its application will be numerous.

13. Most organic substances fluoresce to some extent.

14. The light reflected from any material is in general polarized to some extent.

15. Much research work has been and is being carried out on activated inorganic "phosphors," i.e. compounds that fluoresce and also phosphoresce to some degree.

6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод словосочетаний to say nothing of и not to mention, выражающих ограничение («не говоря уже о чём-л.») (§ 79).

to say nothing of

1. Not all of the aircraft are suitable for high-speed flight to say nothing of helicopters.



2. Photography has become an effective tool in the study of meteors to say nothing of radar.

3. One of the advantages of radar techniques in studying the upper layers of the atmosphere from meteor data is the speed with which they are obtained, to say nothing of the possibility of conducting observations in the day-time and bad weather.

4. Meteors represent a definite hazard to rocltet ships, for even the smallest meteoric particles are capable of penetrating the skin of such a vehicle to say nothing of large ones.

not to mention

5. Jupiter has 12 moons, Saturn nine, Uranus five, and Neptune and Mars have two each. The Earth has one natural Moon, not to mention the artificial ones.

6. The use of stratosphere rockets, not to mention artificial Earth satellites, presents a most promising method for the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere.

e. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных словосочетаний типа «другими словами», «иначе говоря» (§ 80).

1. With present rockets and fuels it appears that it needs about a ton of take-off mass to enable a pound of matter to escape from the Earths gravitational field ~ to give it, in other words, the escape velocity of 25,000 miles per hour.

2. When an object is heated, the average speed of its molecules is increased, their average kinetic energy becomes greater or, to put it in another way, the object is said to be at a higher temperature.

3. In plain words, electrons are electricity, and for this reason the electron is often considered as the unit of electrical charge.

4. The unit of specific impulse is Ib/lb/sec or, more simply, seconds.

5. The major part of the energy of an ordinary electric lamp is emitted in the in ra-red region, or in other words, as heat.

6. When we drop a stone into water it does not move outward from the central point, but it rises and then falls again. To be more exact the particles of water are vibrating relative to their former position in the vertical plane.

7. The Curies were able to calculate that within the space of 1600 years half o\ any given quantity of radium disappears, to be more accurate, half of its matter turns into radiation.

7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание иа обороты, выражающие общепризнанность сообщаемой информации («общеизвестно», «признано, что») (§81).

I. It is common knowledge that energy reaches the Earth from the Sun by radiation.

hazard - опасность



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