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3. Mans flight into space extended immeasurably the horizons of our knowledge.

4. A large percentage of test equipment failures can be avoided by careful handling.

5. Having discussed the various factors which affect the ultimate sensitivity of thermal detectors we must now discuss photo-detectors.

6. On the spaceship Vostok two-way communication with the Earth was ensured by a radio-telephone system working on short waves.

7. A special type of motion that we have not yet examined but that Is encountered in many familiar situations is vibratory motion.

8. The earth, by virtue of its rotation, imparts to the launching vehicle an initial velocity relative to free space.

9. Beta radiation was originally attributed to the emissions of beta rays, but subsequent investigations showed that the particles in question were electrons.

10. Fields of force are recognized by the tendency of objects in them to move; accordingly, we describe fields in terms of motions.

Б. Глагольные словосочетания:

to talce advantage, to be in progress, to be in a position, to be referred to as, care is taiien, reference is made, mention is made, use is made

11. We must study radio-astronomy in the microwave range in order to take best advantage of the low sky temperatures generally found at these frequencies.

12. Research work is constantly in progress to find materials with magnetic properties better than those in use, to improve the technique of the utilization of materials in current demand, and to explore the deeper secrets of magnetism.

13. Having introduced the forces acting on the rocket we are now in a position to write down the equations of motion.

14. Sometimes the walls of a rocket combustion chamber are cooled by the propellant which is later burned. This technique is referred to as "regenerative cooling."

15. Extreme care should be taken in making connections between instruments on the instrument pannel.

16. Protons can only be separated from an atom under very abnormal conditions to which reference will be made later.

17. Mention has already been made of disturbances in radio-communication due to variations in the ionization of the D-layer.

18. In the Geiger-counter method, use is made of the fact that the alpha particle produces intense ionization along its-path while passing through a gas.- - . . ;.....i



в. Словосочетания глагол -- прилагательное:

(о be responsible, to be familiar, to be aware, to hold true, to make sure

19. In the case of an atom Bohr assumed ihat only the outermost electron Is responsible for the emission of visible light.

20. Ordinary magnets are familiar to everybody.

21. Each person really carries about 60,000 pounds of atmospheric weight. Physically we are not aware of this pressure.

22. The assumption of Bohrs theory that we can determine precisely the location and speed of individual particles at all times holds true for microscopic objects, but it does not hold true for minute, submicroscopic particles.

23. Make sure that all fuel lines are shielded in so far as is possible from all sources of heat.

Словообразовательное упражнение

23. Прочтите следуюшие слова, учитывая, что префикс Inter- соответствует значениям приставок «между-», «взаимно-», «внутри-», а префиксы mal-и mis- имеют значение «неправильно», «неверно»:

,interact, interatomic, interchange, interconnect/interstel-lar, malfunction, maladjustment, misinform, misuse, misun-derstand, miscalculate

Упражнения в чтении

24. Прочитайте следующие слова из основного текста:

register [redsistg spiral fspaiaral]

whereby (weabai turbulent ftaibjulant]

galaxy Igaelaksi] exponentially [,ekspounen/3li]

neighbourhood [neibahudj

25. Прочитайте предложения из текста (содержащие слова от автора), соблюдая указанные паузы.

1. ...particles could be produced or, to put in another way, accelerated in...

2. The particles are, so to say, "locked" to particular lines of force...

ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА

1. SOLAR RADIATION

(Для перевода без словаря)

It is common knowledge that all motions in the Earths atmosphere, all weather, and life itself owe their origin to energy received from the Sun. This energy is transmitted to the Earth in the form of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation occurs over a wide spectrum of wavelengths. At one end of a complete spectrum are the extremely short waves, including the cosmic rays, gamma rays, and X-rays. Next come the ultra-violet rays, visible light, and infra-red rays. Finally at the other end of the spectrum are the very long waves used in radar, television and radio broad-



casting. Solar radiation is spread over but a part of this spectrum; it includes "only visible light and parts of the ultra-viotet and infra-red bands.

The quantity of solar radiation received at the outer layers of the Earths atmosphere on a unit of surface in a unit of time is called the solar constant. Its value has been calculated to be 1.97 cal/cmVmin. Not until this radiation is absorbed is heat liberated As stated above, a fraction of the incoming solar radiation, about 50%, is absorbed by the ozone layer.

The next barrier is the cloud layers, which can be considered to provide an average cover of about half the sky. The reflecting ability of the clouds is about 0.80, so that 40% of the total radiation is reflected back to space without releasing its heat.

Included in these figures is the small amount of radiation reflected either back to space or down to Earth by the process known as scattering, light waves being scattered, or reflected in all directions, when striking very small particles.

It is a safe assumption that since the Earth is not growing )rogressively hotter, all the absorbed radiation must necessarily )e radiated back to space. The wavelength of radiant energy varies inversely* with the temperature of the emitting body. The Earth, a relatively cool body, radiates entirely in the long-wave infra-red band. The atmosphere is not nearly so transparent * to these long waves as it was to the short-wave solar radiation. Water vapour, clouds, and to a smaller degree, carbon dioxide, are all good absorbers of rays in the infra-red spectrum. Thus the energy is, so to speak, trapped and the lower layers of the atmosphere are warmed.

* liberate - выде.1ять, высвобождать fraction - часть, доля

.» scatter - рассеиваться

* inversely - обратно пропорционально

* be transparent - быть прозрачным для..., пропускать

2. VELOCITIES NEAR THAT OF LIGHT

(Для перевода со словарем)

As the velocity of a space vehicle nears that of light (not likely to be achieved in the immediate future), the effects of relativity theory enter into situation of particular interest, the so-called "time dilatation" effect predicted by this theory - and supported by experimental evidence in the physics of high-speed particles.

Briefly, the predicted effect is as follows: consider two men, A and B, of identical age, say 20 years old. A will remain at home on the Earth, and В will undertake a voyage in space at a speed very near that of light and eventually return to Earth. The total



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