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УРОК ДВЕНАДЦАТЫЙ

Текст: The Progress of Contemporary Physics. Грамматические осиовы перевода

Перевод конструкций chave + существительное + инфинитив» (§ i09), «have + существительное + причастие П» (§ 108).

Лексические основы перевода

Перевод слов: set (с послелогами), valid, escape, superior. Inferior, number, numerable, numerous, numerical, effort, endeavour. Перевод предлога against.

Перевод многозначного служебного слова ever (упр. 3). Перевод глаголов с префиксом out- (упр. 13).

Перевод терминов, в состав которых входят прилагательные high и long (упр. 14).

ТЕКСТ

THE PROGRESS OF CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS

The progress of contemporary * physics is a very wide subject, for progress was made in so many different directions, and at so swift* a rate, that it would require many boolcs to set them out in detail. But though difficult, the subject is still worth discussing.

Like all the natural sciences, physics advances by two distinct roads*. On the one hand, it operates empirically, and thus is enabled to discover and analyse a growing number of phenomena - in this instant, of physical facts. Observations of the world around us whether haphazard» or controlled, lead to the accumulation of experimental facts. On the other hand, physics also operates by theory, which allows it to have the known facts collected and assembled in one consistent system. New ideas are gradually introduced as hypothesis to be tested by experiment. Some of them approved by the experimental results are Incorporated* In, and lead to, alternations of the theory. Once a new theory has been shown to be consistent with known facts, or, in other words, to be valid, it is used to



predict the results of the experiments not yet performed. The introduction of a new theory is always followed by a period of extended testing and, as usually happens, limitations are found at some point. Thus, thermodynamics reached a barrier when applied to the study of wavelength distribution of radiant energy from hot bodies. Only by an assumption of energy quanta was a satisfactory escape " shown. This new theory soon established a domain of its own where it demonstrated its superiority " over thermodynamics as in explaining the photoelectric effect, specific heats of solids and gases and many other phenomena. Thus, the joint efforts of experiment and theory, at any given time, provide the body of knowledge which is the sum " total of the physics of the day.

The great task and the splendid " achievement of nineteenth century physics consisted in increasing the exactness and range - in every direction -of our knowledge of the phenomena taking place on the human scale. Not only did it continue to develop mechanics, acoustics and optics -the leading branches of classical science - but it also created on every side new sciences possessing Innumerable" aspects, such as thermodynamics and the science of electricity. In this way nineteenth century physics succeeded in achieving the complete domination " of the phenomena we observe around us. No doubt research into these phenomena can still lead to the knowledge of many further facts and to new applications; yet it appears that in this sphere" the essential work has been completed.

From the beginning of the twentieth century the attention of pioneers of physics has been turning increasingly toward more subtle phenomena - molecular, atomic and intra-atomic. The more deeply they descended into the minute structures of matter, the more clearly they saw that the earlier concepts - especially of time and space -failed them in an endeavour" to describe the new worlds which they were entering. Certain fundamental difficulties affecting the whole basis of physical science were revealed. It became apparent that it was necessary to introduce completely novel concepts which had been entirely unknown to classical physics. These new concepts are the atomic theory, the theory of relativity and the quantum theory -three questions which dominate modern physics and influence every branch.

The discovery of the double nature of electrons, as at once a particle and a wave, was followed by a change in the quantum theory, so that this was given a new form called wave mechanics. Wave mechanics has brought about a better understanding and prediction of those phenomena which depend upon the existence of quantized stationary states of atoms. The new theory contributed to every branch of science, including chemistry, because this has brought with it an entirely novel and interesting manner of interpreting 2" chemical combinations.



However, the great book of science is never finished: other surprises await" us -who knows what mysteries are hidden 22 within the nucleus of an atom, which although a million million limes smaller than the smallest living thing is yet a universe in itself.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Грамматические упражнения

1. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию <to have + существительное + причастие II».

Заметьте, что при переводе предложений с этой конструкцией существительное-подлежащее обычно ставится в косвенном падеже, существительное, входящее в состав конструкции, становится подлежащим, причастие II - сказуемым, глагол to have отдельным словом не переводится (§ 108).

Образец:

Both cockpits have controls connected together so that... В обеих кабинах (самолета) органы управления соединены между собой так, чтобы...

1. Machines of many types have their operations controlled by a computer.

2. A colliding molecule may have an atom or two knocked out of it.

3. The theory of atomic structure developed by Bohr has the electrons distributed around the nucleus in shells (orbits).

4. The larger air-cooled engines have the cylinders arranged radially.

5. An atom which has one or more of Its electrons raised to a higher than normal energy level is said to be in an excited * state.

6. Current transformers are step-up transformers having their primaries connected in series with one line and their secondaries connected to the ammeter terminals.

2. Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию «to have + существительное + инфинитив».

Помните, что глагол to have в этой конструкции имеет значение побуж-Дения к действию и переводится словами «заставить», «сделать так, чтобы». Заметьте, что глагол to have может употребляться не только в форме инфинитива, но и в форме герундия нли причастия (§ 109).

Образец:

It is possible to have the particles move...

Можно заставить частицы двигаться... I. It is necessary to have the personnel be aware of the dangers Involved in operating such a device.

excite - возбуждать 9. 259



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