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4. То produce а large thrust In a rocket requires high mass flow, high energy and high pressure.

5. To do work an object must have energy.

6. To coordinate the efforts of many groups of engineers constitutes a very difficult task.

5. Переведите группы слов (A.) и предложения (В.), обращая внимание иа пассивный инфинитив в функции определения (§ в).

Образец:

The experimental data to be discussed... Экспериментальные данные, которые будут обсуждаться (которые должны быть обсуждены)...

A. 1. The elements to be studied...

2. The systems to- be tested...

3. The energy to be generated...

4. The instruments to be used....

5. The data to be obtained...

B. I. Propellant* properties and pressure are the main two

factors to be considered here.

2. Mars will probably be one of the first worlds to be reached by men.

3. There are many things to be taken into consideration when designing a spaceship.

4. A most difficult problem to be overcome in the application of nuclear power to aircraft propulsion is the weight of the ship.

5. Now we shall discuss the system of units to be employed later in our discussion.

6. The chromosphere of the Sun may now be observed at all times by means of a spectrohelioscope and a speclrohelio-graph to be described later.

6. Переведите предложения, содержащие сложное дополнение. Назовите глаголы, после которых может следовать сложное дополнение (§ 15).

Заметьте, что глаголы cause и make переводятся по-разному в зависимости от наличия или отсутствия после них сложного дополнения.

Образец:

We consider the maximum field value to be...

Мы считаем, что максимальная величина поля составляет...

This force makes electrons move...

Эта сила заставляет электроны двигаться...

1. The ancients thought electricity to be invisible fluid.

2. We consider nuclear energy to be the prime source of heat energy.

3. The early discoveries in nuclear science showed the atomic nucleus to be a vast source of energy.

" propellant - топливо



4. Maxwell found the speed ol propagation of electromagnetic waves to be equal to the ratio of electromagnetic to the electro-static units of charge.

5. At some distance above the Earth, ultra-violet radiation from the Sun causes some of the molecules to dissociate from the molecular state to the atomic state.

6. What makes a satellite go around the Earth and stay in its orbit?

7. The tendency of a body to continue to move in a straight line is very evident when for some reason it is necessary to make the body move in a circle.

8. The air flowing over and under a wing causes the pressure to be less than atmospheric on the upper side of the wing.

9. The more stages, the more diff cult it is to make an ampli-(ier run in a stable fashion.

7. Переведите группы слов (A.) и предложения (В.), обращая внимание на перевод конструкции «for + существительное + инфинитив» (§ 18). Укажите, какой союз может предшествовать этому обороту.

Образец:

For the Moon to circle the Earth...

Для того чтобы Луна обернулась вокруг Земли...

For the information to be received...

Для того чтобы получить эту информацию... (Для получения этой информации... или Чтобы можно было получить эту информацию...)

A. 1. Рог an aircraft to be built, it is necessary...

2. For the fission process to be investigated, the scientists...

3. For thermonuclear reaction to take place, the temperature...

4. For the effect of cosmic rays to be studied in detail, satellites....

B. I. 8 minutes are required for light to travel from the Sun to

the Earth.

2. Nearly a month is required for the Moon to circle the Earth.

3. The satellite of Neptune is too far away for its size to be known with any accuracy.

4. For combustion to be rapid, the fuel and oxidant must be quickly mixed.

5. For ions to be formed, a considerable amount of energy must be given to the parent atoms.

6. In order for the airplane to climb, thrust must exceed drag.

7. In order for the radar system to operate properly, the radar receiver must be tuned to the magnetron frequency.

8. To start a chain reaction it is necessary for at least one neutron to hit * a Uranium-235 nucleus.



9. Certain conditions are necessary for tlie existence of life to be possible on planets.

10. To observe the artificial • satellite optically it is necessary for him to be illuminated by the Sun.

11. In order for a proton or neutron to leave the nucleus much energy is required.

12. Four years are required for light to travel from the nearest star to the Earth.

8. Переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитив в функции обстоятельства последующего действия (§ 5).

Помните, что инфииитнв в дайной функции не имеет признаков, внешне отличающих его от инфинитива в функции обстоятельства цели. Инфинитив в этой функции переводится деепричастием или личной формой глагола и присоединяется к первому союзом «и».

Образец:

Elements combine chemically to form compounds. Элементы химически соединяются и образуют (образуя) соединения.

1. Modern theory considers that at extremely high temperatures all molecules break up to form atoms or ions which are electrically charged atoms or portions of molecules.

2. Rutherford proved that alpha particles are the nuclei of helium atoms and that after the alpha particles are slowed down, they capture two electrons to become normal helium atoms.

3. According to some scientific theory the surface rocks of Mars have combined with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a layer of iron oxide.

4. Element 94 was given the name of Plutonium to follow Uranium in the same order as the corresponding planets.

5. If the velocity of a satellite exceeds escape velocity then the satellite will leave the Earth never to return.

6. The world production of UjOs is very high to rise perhaps, to still greater amount in the next few years.

9. Переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитив в функции обстоятельства следствия (§ 4).

1. Molecules are too small to be seen with the most powerful microscope.

2. Only the most swifty moving molecules possessed sufficient energy to escape from the atmosphere.

3. In a large galaxy the concentration of stars is often too dense for them to be examined individually.

* artificial - искусственный

• rocks - скальные породы

escape velocity - скорость отрыва



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